ืื™ืš ื ื•ืกืขื™ื ื™ื›ื•ืœื™ื ืœืขื–ื•ืจ ืœืฉืžืจ ืืช ืฉื•ื ื™ื•ืช ื”ืืœืžื•ื’ื™ื ื‘ืขื•ืœื - ืœื•ื ืœื™ ืคืœืื ื˜

ืื™ืš ื ื•ืกืขื™ื ื™ื›ื•ืœื™ื ืœืขื–ื•ืจ ืœืฉืžืจ ืืช ืฉื•ื ื™ื•ืช ื”ืืœืžื•ื’ื™ื ื‘ืขื•ืœื - ืœื•ื ืœื™ ืคืœืื ื˜

ืื™ืŸ ื–ื” ืกื•ื“ ื›ื™ ืฉื•ื ื™ื•ืช ื”ืืœืžื•ื’ื™ื ื‘ืขื•ืœื ื ืžืฆืื•ืช ื‘ืฆืจื•ืช ืจืฆื™ื ื™ื•ืช, ื”ืกื™ื›ื•ื™ื™ื ืฉืœื”ื ืžืื•ื™ืžื™ื ืขืœ ื™ื“ื™ ื›ืœ ื“ื‘ืจ, ื”ื—ืœ ืžืฉื™ื ื•ื™ื™ ืืงืœื™ื ื•ืขื“ ืœื“ื™ื’-ื™ืชืจ; ืœืžืขืฉื”, ืžื“ืขื ื™ื ืฆื•ืคื™ื ื›ื™ ืœืœื ืคืขื•ืœื” ื“ืจืกื˜ื™ืช ื›ืžืขื˜ ื›ืœ ืืœื” ืžืขืจื›ื•ืช ืืงื•ืœื•ื’ื™ื•ืช ืžืกื ื•ื•ืจ ื™ื›ื•ืœ ืœื”ื™ื•ืช ื ืขืœื ืขืœ ื™ื“ื™ 2050.

ืื‘ืœ ื‘ืขื•ื“ ื”ืคืจื•ื’ื ื•ื–ื” ื”ื™ื ืงื•ื“ืจืช, ื”ื ื•ืกืขื™ื ื™ื›ื•ืœื™ื ืœืฉื—ืง ืชืคืงื™ื“ ื‘ืงืžืคื™ื™ืŸ ืœื”ืฆื™ืœ ืืช ื”ืฉื•ื ื™ื•ืช ืขืœ ื™ื“ื™ ืฉื™ื ื•ื™ ื”ื”ืชื ื”ื’ื•ืช ืฉืœื”ื ืงื‘ืœืช ื”ื—ืœื˜ื•ืช ืžื•ืฉื›ืœื•ืช. ื”ื ื” ื”ื˜ื™ืคื™ื ืฉืœื ื• ืขืœ ืื™ืš ืืชื” ื™ื›ื•ืœ ืœืขื–ื•ืจ ื›ื“ื™ ืœื”ื‘ื˜ื™ื— ื›ื™ ื™ืขืจื•ืช ื”ื’ืฉื ื”ืืœื” ืฉืœ ื”ื™ื - ืžืŸ ื”ืžืฉื•ืœืฉ ืืœืžื•ื’ื™ื ืœืื™ื™ื ื”ืงืจื™ื‘ื™ื™ื - ื ื™ืชืŸ ืœื™ื”ื ื•ืช ืœื“ื•ืจื•ืช ืœื‘ื•ื.

ืœืจืกืŸ ืืช ื”ืฉื™ืžื•ืฉ ื”ืคืœืกื˜ื™ืง ืฉืœืš

ื”ืฆืœืช ืฉื•ื ื™ื•ืช ื”ืืœืžื•ื’ื™ื ื‘ืขื•ืœื - ื”ืชื•ืžื›ื•ืช ื‘ืจื‘ืข ืžื›ืœ ื”ืžื™ื ื™ื ื”ื™ืžื™ื™ื, ื›ืžื• ื’ื ื‘ื—ืฆื™ ืžื™ืœื™ืืจื“ ื‘ื ื™ ืื“ื ื‘ืขื•ืœื - ืžืชื—ื™ืœื” ืขืœ ืงืจืงืข ื™ื‘ืฉื”.

ืื—ื“ ื”ืื™ื•ืžื™ื ื”ื’ื“ื•ืœื™ื ื‘ื™ื•ืชืจ ืขืœ ื”ื—ื™ื™ื ื”ื™ืžื™ื™ื, ื›ื™ ืชืคืงื™ื“ ืžืจื›ื–ื™ ื‘ื‘ืจื™ืื•ืช ืฉืœ ืฉื•ื ื™ื•ืช ื”ืืœืžื•ื’ื™ื ื”ื•ื ืคืœืกื˜ื™ืง, ืืฉืจ ืืฃ ืคืขื ืœื ื ืฉื‘ืจ. ื‘ืžืงื•ื ื–ืืช, ื”ื•ื ื ืฉื‘ืจ ืœืชื•ืš ื—ืชื™ื›ื•ืช ืงื˜ื ื•ืช ืงื˜ื ื˜ื ื•ืช ื‘ืฉื microplastics. ืื ื”ืคืœืกื˜ื™ืง ืฉืœื ืื™ื ื• ื”ื•ืจื’ ืืช ื”ื—ื™ื™ื ื”ื™ืžื™ื™ื, ื”ื›ื™ืžื™ืงืœื™ื ื”ื ืœื›ื“ื™ื ืขืœ ืฉื‘ืจื™ ืืœื” ื™ื›ื•ืœื™ื ืœื”ื™ื•ืช ืจืขื™ืœื™ื ืžืื•ื“ ืœื‘ืขืœื™ ื—ื™ื™ื ืืฉืจ ืœื‘ืœื•ืข ืื•ืชื.

ืขื ื—ืžื™ืฉื” ื˜ืจื™ืœื™ื•ืŸ ื—ืชื™ื›ื•ืช ืฉืœ ืคืœืกื˜ื™ืง ื›ื‘ืจ ื—ืฉื‘ืชื™ ืœื”ื™ื•ืช ืžืงืคืฅ ืขืœ ื”ืื•ืงื™ื™ื ื•ืกื™ื ืฉืœื ื•, ื”ื™ืžื ืขื•ืช ืคืจื™ื˜ื™ื ืœืฉื™ืžื•ืฉ ื™ื—ื™ื“ ื›ื’ื•ืŸ ืฉืงื™ื•ืช, ื‘ืงื‘ื•ืงื™ื ื•ืงืฉื™ื•ืช ื™ื›ื•ืœ ืœืขื–ื•ืจ ืœืžื ื•ืข ืœื”ื•ืกื™ืฃ ืืช ื”ื ื•ืฉื ื”ื–ื” ืขื ืง.

ื‘ื—ืจ ืžืคืขื™ืœื™ ื ืกื™ืขื•ืช ืืงื•ืœื•ื’ื™ืช

ืขื•ืฉื” ืžืืžืฅ ืœื‘ื—ื•ืจ ืืช ืžืคืขื™ืœื™ ืชื™ื™ืจื•ืช ื™ืžื™ื™ื ืื—ืจืื™ ื‘ื™ื•ืชืจ ื‘ืขืช ื ืกื™ืขื” ื™ื›ื•ืœ ื’ื ืœืขื–ื•ืจ ืœื”ืฆื™ืœ ืฉื•ื ื™ื•ืช ื”ืืœืžื•ื’ื™ื. ื”ืฆืขื“ ื”ืจืืฉื•ืŸ ื”ื•ื ืœื”ื‘ื˜ื™ื— ื›ื™ ืžืคืขื™ืœื™ ืžื•ืจืฉื™ื ื”ืžื“ืจื™ื›ื™ื ืฉืœื”ื ืžืื•ืฉืจื™ื. ื‘ืื•ืคืŸ ืื™ื“ื™ืืœื™, ืžืคืขื™ืœื™ ื™ื”ื™ื” ื’ื ืœื”ื—ื–ื™ืง ืกื•ื’ ืฉืœ ื”ืกืžื›ื” ืืงื•ืœื•ื’ื™ืช ืœืื•ืžื™ื™ื ืื• ื‘ื™ื ืœืื•ืžื™ื™ื.

ืื ืžื™ื“ืข ื–ื” ืื™ื ื• ื–ืžื™ืŸ ื‘ืืชืจ ื”ื—ื‘ืจื”, ืฉืืœ ืฉืืœื•ืช. ืื™ืš ื”ื—ื‘ืจื” ืžื—ื ื›ืช ืืช ื”ืื•ืจื—ื™ื ืขืœ ื”ืกื‘ื™ื‘ื” ื”ืžืงื•ืžื™ืช ื•ืขืœ ื”ื—ื™ื™ื ื”ื™ืžื™ื™ื? ืžื” ื”ืฆืขื“ื™ื ื”ืกืคืฆื™ืคื™ื™ื ื”ื ื“ืจืฉื™ื ื›ื“ื™ ืœืžื–ืขืจ ืืช ื”ืฉืคืขืชื” ืขืœ ื”ืžืขืจื›ืช ื”ืืงื•ืœื•ื’ื™ืช ื”ืžืงื•ืžื™ืช? ื”ืื ื”ื•ื ืคื•ืขืœ ืื• ืžืกื™ื™ืข ื‘ื™ื•ื–ืžื•ืช ืฉื™ืžื•ืจ ืžืงื•ืžื™ื•ืช ื›ื’ื•ืŸ ื—ื•ืฃ ื ืงื™? ื™ื™ืชื›ืŸ ืฉื™ื”ื™ื” ืขืœื™ืš ืœืฉืœื ืขื•ื“ ื›ืžื” ื“ื•ืœืจื™ื ื›ื“ื™ ืœืงื—ืช ecotour ืœื’ื™ื˜ื™ืžื™, ืื‘ืœ ืœื”ืกืชื›ืœ ืขืœ ื–ื” ื›ื”ืฉืงืขื” ื‘ืกื‘ื™ื‘ื”.

ืœื”ื™ื•ืช ืžื“ืขืŸ ืื–ืจื—

ืžืกืคืจ ื’ื“ืœ ื•ื”ื•ืœืš ืฉืœ ื™ืกื•ื“ื•ืช ืฉื™ืžื•ืจ, ืคืืจืงื™ื ืœืื•ืžื™ื™ื, ื•ืžืœื•ื ื•ืช ื™ื“ื™ื“ื•ืชื™ื™ื ืœืกื‘ื™ื‘ื” ื‘ืจื—ื‘ื™ ื”ืขื•ืœื ืœื”ืคืขื™ืœ ืชื•ื›ื ื™ื•ืช ืžื“ืขื ื™ื ืื–ืจื—ื™ื™ื ื”ืžืืคืฉืจื™ื ืœืžื˜ื™ื™ืœื™ื ื”ื™ื•ืžื™ื•ื ืœืฉื—ืง ืชืคืงื™ื“ ืคืขื™ืœ ืœืชืจื•ื ืœื”ื’ื ื” ืืจื•ื›ืช ื˜ื•ื•ื— ืฉืœ ืฉื•ื ื™ื•ืช ื”ืืœืžื•ื’ื™ื ื‘ืขื•ืœื.

ืœื“ื•ื’ืžื”, ืžื“ืขื ื™ื ืฉืžืคืงื—ื™ื ืขืœ ืฉื•ื ื™ืช ื”ืžื—ืกื•ื ื”ื’ื“ื•ืœื” ื‘ืื•ืกื˜ืจืœื™ื” - ื”ืžืฉืชืจืขืช ืขืœ ืฉื˜ื— ืฉืœ ื›ืžืขื˜ 348,000 ืงืž"ืจ - ืžืกืชืžื›ื™ื ืขืœ "ืฉื•ื ื™ืช ื”ืžื—ืกื•ื ื”ื’ื“ื•ืœื”" ืขื™ืŸ ืขืœ ื”ืฉื•ื ื™ืช App, ื”ืžืืคืฉืจ ืœืžืฉืชืžืฉื™ื ืœื”ืขืœื•ืช ืชืžื•ื ื•ืช ื•ื”ืงืœื˜ื•ืช ืฉืœ ืื™ืจื•ืขื™ื ื”ืœื‘ื ืช ืืœืžื•ื’ื™ื, ื—ื™ื•ืช ื‘ืจ ืชืงื•ืขื™ื, ื•ื”ืชืคืชื—ื•ื™ื•ืช ืื—ืจื•ืช ื”ืžืกื™ื™ืขื•ืช ืœืกื™ื™ืข ืœืจืฉื•ื™ื•ืช ืฉืœื”ื ืฉื™ืžื•ืจ ื”ืขื‘ื•ื“ื”.

ืžืชื ื“ื‘ื™ื ื‘ืคืจื•ื™ืงื˜ ืฉื™ืžื•ืจ ืฉื•ื ื™ื•ืช

ืžื’ื•ื•ืŸ ืขืฆื•ื ืฉืœ ืคืจื•ื™ืงื˜ื™ื ืฉื™ืžื•ืจ ื™ืžื™ ืžื•ืฆืขื™ื ื›ื™ื•ื ืขืœ ื™ื“ื™ ืจื•ื‘ ืืจื’ื•ื ื™ ื•ื•ืœื•ื ื˜ื•ืจื™ื–ื ื”ืขื™ืงืจื™ื™ื ื‘ื™ืขื“ื™ื ื”ื—ืœ ืื™ื ื“ื•ื ื–ื™ื” ืืœ ื”ืื™ื™ื ื”ืžืœื“ื™ื‘ื™ื™ื, ืคื™ื’'ื™ ืืœ ื”ืื™ื™ื ื”ืื–ื•ืจื™ื™ื.

ืคืจื•ื™ืงื˜ื™ื ืขืฉื•ื™ื™ื ืœืจืื•ืช ืื•ืชืš ืœืกื™ื™ืข ื‘ื™ื•ื–ืžื•ืช ืฉื™ืžื•ืจ ื›ื•ืœืœ ื ืงื™ื•ืŸ ื”ื—ื•ืฃ, ื‘ื ื™ื™ืช ื”ืžื•ื“ืขื•ืช ื”ืงื”ื™ืœืชื™ืช, ื ื™ื˜ื•ืจ ืคื™ื–ื™ ืฉืœ ืฉื•ื ื™ื•ืช ืืœืžื•ื’ื™ื ื•ื—ื™ื™ื ื™ืžื™ื™ื, ื•ืืคื™ืœื• rementing ืฉื‘ืจื™ื ืืœืžื•ื’ื™ื ื‘ืจื™ืื™ื ืขืœ ืฉื•ื ื™ื•ืช ืคื’ื•ื ืื• ืžื•ืœื‘ืŸ. ืขื ืคืจื•ื™ืงื˜ื™ื ืจื‘ื™ื, ื›ื•ืœืœ ืงื•ืจืก ืฆืœื™ืœื” ืฆืœื™ืœื”, ื–ื•ื”ื™ ื“ืจืš ืžืฆื•ื™ื ืช ืœื”ื—ื–ื™ืจ ืืช ื”ืฉื•ื ื™ืช ืชื•ืš ืœื”ืจื™ื ืืช ื”ื”ืกืžื›ื” ืฉืœืš.

ืชืจืื™, ืื‘ืœ ืืœ ืชื™ื’ืข

ื”ืžื•ืจื›ื‘ืช ืžืื•ืช ืืœืคื™ ื‘ืขืœื™ ื—ื™ื™ื ื–ืขื™ืจื™ื ื”ืงืจื•ื™ื™ื ืคื•ืœื™ืคื™ื, ืืœืžื•ื’ื™ื ืขื“ื™ื ื™ื ื™ื•ืชืจ ืžื›ืคื™ ืฉื”ื ื ืจืื™ื. ื”ืงืคื“ ืœื”ืชืืžืŸ ืขืœ ืฆื™ืคื” ื ื™ื™ื˜ืจืœื™ ื›ืืฉืจ ืฆืœื™ืœื”, ื•ืชืžื™ื“ ืœื”ื™ื•ืช ืžื•ื“ืขื™ื ื”ืกื ืคื™ืจื™ื ืฉืœืš ื›ืืฉืจ ืืชื” ืฆืœื™ืœื” ืื• ืฉื ื•ืจืงืœื™ื ื’ - ืขืจื‘ื•ื‘ ืžืฉืงืขื™ื ืขื ื”ืกื ืคื™ืจื™ื ืฉืœืš ื™ื›ื•ืœ ืœื”ื—ื ื™ืง ืืœืžื•ื’ื™ื, ื‘ืขื•ื“ ืคืฉื•ื˜ ืœื’ืขืช ืืœืžื•ื’ื™ื ื™ื›ื•ืœ ืœื”ืจื•ื’ ืื•ืชื. ื’ื ืื ืืœืžื•ื’ื™ื ืื™ื ื ื ืคื’ืขื™ื ื‘ืขืœื™ืœ, ื”ืขื‘ืจืช ืฉืžื ื™ื ื•ื—ื™ื™ื“ืงื™ื ื”ื›ืœื•ืœื™ื ืขืœ ืขื•ืจ ื”ืื“ื ื™ื›ื•ืœื” ืœื”ืคื•ืš ืืช ื—ืกืจื™ ื”ื—ื•ืœื™ื•ืช ื”ืฉื‘ืจื™ืจื™ื™ื ื”ืœืœื• ืœืคื’ื™ืขื™ื ื™ื•ืชืจ ืœืžื—ืœื•ืช ื•ืœืžื•ื•ืช.

ื‘ื—ืจ ืคื™ืจื•ืช ื™ื ื‘ืจ ืงื™ื™ืžื

ืืชื” ื™ื›ื•ืœ ืœืขื–ื•ืจ ืœืฉืžื•ืจ ืฉื•ื ื™ื•ืช ืืœืžื•ื’ื™ื ืคืฉื•ื˜ ืขืœ ื™ื“ื™ ืงื‘ืœืช ื”ื—ืœื˜ื•ืช ืžื•ืฉื›ืœื•ืช ื™ื•ืชืจ ืขืœ ืื™ื–ื” ืกื•ื’ ืฉืœ ืžืื›ืœื™ ื™ื ืืชื” ืื•ื›ืœ ื•ืžืชื™. ื›ืฉืœื™ืฉ ืžื›ืœ ืžื™ื ื™ ืžื™ื ื™ื ืฉืœ ื“ื’ื™ื ืžืœื•ื—ื™ื ื—ื™ื™ื ืœืคื—ื•ืช ื‘ื—ืœืง ืžื—ื™ื™ื”ื ืขืœ ืฉื•ื ื™ื•ืช ื”ืืœืžื•ื’ื™ื, ื•ื›ืœ ืืœื” ืžืžืœืื™ื ืชืคืงื™ื“ื™ื ื—ืฉื•ื‘ื™ื ื‘ื‘ืจื™ืื•ืชื ืฉืœ ื‘ืชื™ ื’ื™ื“ื•ืœ ืืœื”. ื“ื™ื’ ื”ื™ืชืจ ืฉืœ parrotfish ื• ืื•ื›ืœื•ืกื™ื•ืช ืžื ืชื—, ืœืžืฉืœ, ืžืืคืฉืจ ืืฆื•ืช ืœื’ื“ื•ืœ ืœืœื ื”ืจืฃ, ื’ื•ืจื ื›ืžื” ืืงื•ืœื•ื’ื™ื•ืช ืฉื•ื ื™ืช ืืœืžื•ื’ื™ื ื›ื“ื™ ืžื•ืจืฃ ืž seicapes technicolor ืœืฉื“ื•ืช ืฉืœ ืืฆื•ืช ื•ื—ืฆืฅ.

ืืชื” ื™ื›ื•ืœ ืœื”ื™ืžื ืข ืžืœื”ื™ื•ืช ื—ืœืง ืžื”ื‘ืขื™ื” ืขืœ ื™ื“ื™ ื‘ื“ื™ืงืช ืื ื™ืขื“ ื”ื ืกื™ืขื” ืฉืœืš ื™ืฉ ืžื“ืจื™ืš ืงื™ื™ืžื ืžืื›ืœื™ ื™ื (ืงืจืŸ ื—ื™ื•ืช ื”ื‘ืจ ื”ืขื•ืœืžื™ ื™ืฉ ืžื“ืจื™ื›ื™ื ื—ื™ื ื ืœื™ื•ืชืจ ืž 20 ืžื“ื™ื ื•ืช), ื•ื›ืŸ ื”ื™ื’ื•ื™ ื‘ืจื•ืจื” ืฉืœ ืžื—ื•ืฅ ืœืขื•ื ื” ืžืื›ืœื™ ื™ื ื”ืžื•ืฆืขื™ื ืขืœ ืชืคืจื™ื˜ื™ื ื”ืžืกืขื“ื”.

ื”ืฉืชืžืฉ ืงืจื ื”ื’ื ื” ืฉื•ื ื™ืช ื‘ื˜ื•ื—

ืžื—ืงืจ ืฉืœ ืื™ื™ ื”ื‘ืชื•ืœื” ื‘ืืจื”"ื‘ ืฉืคื•ืจืกื ื‘ืฉื ืช 2015 ื’ื™ืœื” ื›ื™ ื›ื™ืžื™ืงืœื™ื ื ืคื•ืฆื™ื ื”ืžืฉืžืฉื™ื sunscreen ื”ื™ื• ืืฉื ื‘ื”ืจื’ ืฉื•ื ื™ืช ื”ืืœืžื•ื’ื™ื ื”ืžืงื•ืžื™ืช. ื”ืขื‘ืจื™ื™ืŸ ื”ื’ืจื•ืข ื‘ื™ื•ืชืจ ื ืžืฆื ืœื”ื™ื•ืช oxybenzone ืืฉืจ ื™ื›ื•ืœ ืœืคื’ื•ืข DNA ืืœืžื•ื’ื™ื, ืขื™ื‘ื•ื“ ื‘ืจื™ื ืืœืžื•ื’ื™ื ืœืžืจืื” ืกื˜ืจื™ืœื™. Oxybenzone ื•ืชืจื›ื•ื‘ื•ืช ืกื•ืคื’ื•ืช UV ืื—ืจื•ืช (ื›ื•ืœืœ methoxycinnamate) ื™ื›ื•ืœื•ืช ื’ื ืœื’ืจื•ื ืœื”ืœื‘ื ื” ืขืœ ื™ื“ื™ ื”ื•ืจื“ืช ื”ื˜ืžืคืจื˜ื•ืจื” ืฉื‘ื” ื”ืืœืžื•ื’ื™ื ื™ืœื‘ื ื• ื›ืืฉืจ ื”ื ื ื—ืฉืคื™ื ืœืœื—ืฅ ื—ื•ื ืžืžื•ืฉืš.

ืืคื™ืœื• ื›ืžื” ืžืจื›ื™ื‘ื™ื ื”ืžืฆื•ื™ื™ื ื‘ืžืกื ื ื™ ืงืจื™ื ื” "ื˜ื‘ืขื™ื™ื" ืื• "ืื•ืจื’ื ื™ื™ื" ื™ื›ื•ืœื™ื ืœื”ื™ื•ืช ืจืขื™ืœื™ื. ืœื‘ื ื“ืจ ื•ืืงืœื™ืคื˜ื•ืก, ืœืžืฉืœ, ื™ืฉ ื™ื™ืฉื•ืžื™ื ื›ืžื• repellents ื—ืจืงื™ื, ืžื” ืฉืžืจืžื– ืฉื”ื ืขืฉื•ื™ื™ื ืœื”ื™ื•ืช ืจืขื™ืœื™ื ื—ืกืจื™ ื—ื•ืœื™ื•ืช.ืขื ืžืกืคืจ ื’ื“ืœ ื•ื”ื•ืœืš ืฉืœ ืžื•ืชื’ื™ื sunscreen ื›ืขืช ืคืขื™ืœ ื”ื™ืžื ืขื•ืช ืืœื” ื—ื•ืžืจื™ื ืžื–ื™ืงื™ื, ืงืœ ื™ื•ืชืจ ืœืขืฉื•ืช ืฉื•ื ื™ืช ื‘ื˜ื•ื— ื™ื•ืชืจ ื‘ื—ื™ืจื•ืช.

ื”ื™ืžื ืข ืžื•ืฆืจื™ ืืœืžื•ื’ื™ื

ืืœืžื•ื’ื™ื ื™ื›ื•ืœื™ื ืœืงื—ืช ืขืฉืจื•ืช ืฉื ื™ื ื›ื“ื™ ืœื”ื’ื™ืข ืœืคื“ื™ื•ืŸ, ื•ืื ื”ื•ื ืฉื ืงืฆืจ, ืกื‘ื™ื‘ ืžื™ื˜ื•ืช ืืœืžื•ื’ื™ื ืœืขืชื™ื ืงืจื•ื‘ื•ืช ืœื ืœื”ืชืื•ืฉืฉ. ืžื•ืฉื‘ื•ืช ื”ืืœืžื•ื’ื™ื ื”ืื“ื•ืžื•ืช ืฉืœ ื”ื™ื ื”ืชื™ื›ื•ืŸ, ืœืžืฉืœ, ืžื ื™ื‘ื•ืช ื›ื™ื•ื ืจืง 25% ืžื”ื™ื‘ื•ืœ ื”ืžืงื•ืจื™ ืฉืœื”ืŸ.

ื›ืš, ืขืœ ื™ื“ื™ ืจื›ื™ืฉืช ืชื›ืฉื™ื˜ื™ื ืืœืžื•ื’ื™ื (ืืฉืจ ืจื‘ื™ื ืฉืœ ื”ืžื•ืชื’ื™ื ื”ืžื•ื‘ื™ืœื™ื ื‘ืขื•ืœื ืชื›ืฉื™ื˜ื™ื, ื›ื•ืœืœ ื˜ื™ืคืื ื™ & Co, ื›ื‘ืจ ืœื ืœืžื›ื•ืจ) ื•ืกื•ื’ื™ื ืื—ืจื™ื ืฉืœ ืžื–ื›ืจื•ืช ืืœืžื•ื’ื™ื ืขืœ ื”ื ืกื™ืขื•ืช ืฉืœืš, ืืชื” ืœืžืขืฉื” ืชื•ืจื ืœื™ืจื™ื“ื” ืฉืœ ืืœืžื•ื’ื™ื ื‘ืจื—ื‘ื™ ื”ืขื•ืœื.

ืื™ืกื•ืฃ ืฉื‘ืจื™ ืืœืžื•ื’ื™ื ืžืชื™ื ืžื”ื—ื•ืฃ ืœืงื—ืช ื”ื‘ื™ืชื” ืื™ืชืš ื”ื•ื ื’ื ื‘ืœืชื™ ื—ื•ืงื™ ื‘ืžื“ื™ื ื•ืช ืžืกื•ื™ืžื•ืช.

.

ืฉืชืฃ:

ื“ืคื™ื ื“ื•ืžื™ื

add
close