ื“ืจื•ื ืืคืจื™ืงื” 10 ื”ืืชืจื™ื ื”ืžื•ื‘ื™ืœื™ื ืฉืœ ื ืœืกื•ืŸ ืžื ื“ืœื”

ื“ืจื•ื ืืคืจื™ืงื” 10 ื”ืืชืจื™ื ื”ืžื•ื‘ื™ืœื™ื ืฉืœ ื ืœืกื•ืŸ ืžื ื“ืœื”

ื–ื” ื”ื•ื’ืŸ ืœื•ืžืจ ื›ื™ ืœืืฃ ืื—ื“ ืœื ื”ื™ืชื” ื”ืฉืคืขื” ื—ื–ืงื” ื›ืœ ื›ืš ืžืชืžืฉื›ืช ืขืœ ื”ื™ื•ื ื”ืžื•ื“ืจื ื™ ื“ืจื•ื ืืคืจื™ืงื” ื›ืžื• ื ืœืกื•ืŸ Rolihlahla ืžื ื“ืœื”. ื–ื›ืจื• ื—ื™ ืขืœ ื ืคืฉื• ืฉืœ ื”ืขื ื•ืžื•ื ืฆื™ื— ืคืกืœื™ื, ืžื•ื–ื™ืื•ื ื™ื, ืชืขืจื•ื›ื•ืช ื•ืžื•ื ื•ืžื ื˜ื™ื ื‘ืจื—ื‘ื™ ื”ืืจืฅ.

ื›ืžื‘ืงืจ ื‘ื“ืจื•ื ืืคืจื™ืงื”, ืื ืืชื” ืžืงื•ื•ื” ืœืงื‘ืœ ืชื•ื‘ื ื” ืขืœ ื”ื ืคืฉ ืฉืœ ื”ืžื“ื™ื ื”, ื”ืขื ืฉืœื” ื•ืืช ื”ืขื‘ืจ ืฉืœื”, ืืชื” ืคืฉื•ื˜ ืœื ื™ื›ื•ืœ ืœืขื–ื•ื‘ ื‘ืœื™ ื‘ื™ืงืจ ืœืคื—ื•ืช ื›ืžื” ืื ื“ืจื˜ืื•ืช ื”ื–ื™ื›ืจื•ืŸ ืฉืœ ื”ืžื“ื™ื ื” ืœืื—ื“ ื”ืžื ื”ื™ื’ื™ื ื”ื’ื“ื•ืœื™ื ื‘ืขื•ืœื.

ืžื•ื–ื™ืื•ืŸ ื”ืืคืจื˜ื”ื™ื™ื“

ื›ื“ื™ ืœื”ื‘ื™ืŸ ืืช ื”ื—ื‘ืจื” ื”ืžื•ืจื›ื‘ืช ืฉืœ ื“ืจื•ื ืืคืจื™ืงื” - ื•ืืช ื—ืฉื™ื‘ื•ืชื” ืฉืœ ืžื ื“ืœื” ื‘ืชื•ื›ื” - ืืชื” ืฆืจื™ืš ืœื”ืกืชื›ืœ ืœืขื‘ืจ. ื”ืืคืจื˜ื”ื™ื™ื“, ืžืขืจื›ืช ื”ื”ืคืจื“ื” ืฉื”ืฉืชืœื˜ื” ืขืœ ื”ืžื“ื™ื ื” ื‘ื™ืŸ ื”ืฉื ื™ื 1948 ืœ -1994, ื—ื“ืจื” ืœื›ืœ ื”ื™ื‘ื˜ ืฉืœ ื—ื™ื™ ื”ื™ื•ืžื™ื•ื: ื—ื™ื ื•ืš, ืชืขืกื•ืงื”, ื—ื•ืคืฉ ืชื ื•ืขื”, ื”ืจื›ื‘ืช ืฉืœืงื—ืช, ื‘ื™ืช ื”ื—ื•ืœื™ื ืฉืืœื™ื• ื ืกืขืช - ืืคื™ืœื• ื‘ืื™ื–ื” ื—ื•ืฃ ื‘ื—ืจืช ืœื˜ื‘ื•ืœ. ื”ืžื“ื™ื ื™ื•ืช ืฉืžื ืชื” ืืช ื›ืœ ื”ื—ื™ื™ื ืฉืœ ืžื ื“ืœื” ื•ืฉื•ื ืžืงื•ื ืืชื” ื™ื›ื•ืœ ืœืงื‘ืœ ืื—ื™ื–ื” ื˜ื•ื‘ื” ื™ื•ืชืจ ื‘ื›ืœืœื™ื ื—ืกืจื™ ื”ืœื‘ ื”ืืœื” ืžืืฉืจ ื‘ืžื•ื–ื™ืื•ืŸ ื”ืืคืจื˜ื”ื™ื™ื“, ืžื“ืจื•ื ืœื™ื•ื”ื ืกื‘ื•ืจื’. ื–ื”ื• ื‘ื™ืงื•ืจ ืจื’ืฉื™, ืื‘ืœ ื”ืชืขืจื•ื›ื•ืช ื”ืื™ื ื˜ืจืืงื˜ื™ื‘ื™ื•ืช ื•ืขื•ืฉืจ ื”ืžื™ื“ืข ื”ื•ืคื›ื•ืช ืืช ื”ืžื•ื–ื™ืื•ืŸ ืœืžื•ื—ืœื˜. ืืคืฉืจ ืœืคื—ื•ืช ืฉืขืชื™ื™ื ืื ืืชื” ืžืงื•ื•ื” ืœื˜ื‘ื•ืœ ืืช ื›ืœ ื–ื”.

ื’ื‘ืขืช ื”ื—ื•ืงื”

ื‘ื™ืžื™ื ืืœื”, ื’ื‘ืขืช ื”ื—ื•ืงื” ื‘ื™ื•ื”ื ืกื‘ื•ืจื’ ื”ื™ื ืžื•ื–ื™ืื•ืŸ ืžืฆืžืจืจ ื•ื‘ื™ืช ื”ืžืฉืคื˜ ืœื—ื•ืงื” ืฉืœ ื“ืจื•ื ืืคืจื™ืงื”, ืืš ื”ื™ื ื”ื—ืœื” ืืช ื”ื—ื™ื™ื ื›ื‘ื™ืช ื›ืœื ื‘ืฉื ืช 1893. ืžื ื“ืœื” ื ื›ืœื ื›ืืŸ ืคืขืžื™ื™ื - ืชื—ื™ืœื” ื‘ืžืฉืคื˜ ื”ื‘ื’ื™ื“ื” ื”ื™ื“ื•ืข ืœืฉืžืฆื” ืžืฉื ืช 1956, ื›ืืฉืจ ื›ืœ 156 ื”ื ืืฉืžื™ื ื”ื™ื• ื‘ืกื•ืคื• ืฉืœ ื“ื‘ืจ ื–ื•ื›ื”, ื•ืฉื•ื‘ ื‘ืฉื ืช 1962 ืœืื—ืจ ืžืขืฆืจื• ื‘ KwaZulu-Natal. ื”ื•ื ื ื—ืฉื‘ ืžืฉืคื™ืข ื™ื•ืชืจ ืžื“ื™ ืขืœ ื‘ื™ืชื• ืขื ืฉืืจ ื”ืืกื™ืจื™ื ื”ืฉื—ื•ืจื™ื ื‘ื’ื–ืจื” ืžืกืคืจ ืืจื‘ืข ืฉืœ ื‘ื™ืช-ื”ืกื•ื”ืจ ื”ื™ื“ื•ืข ืœืฉืžืฆื” ื•ื”ืคืš ืœืืกื™ืจ ื”ืœื-ืœื‘ืŸ ื”ื™ื—ื™ื“ ืฉื ื›ืœื ื‘ืคื•ืจื˜ ื”ืขืชื™ืงื”. ื”ืœื™ื›ื” ื“ืจืš ืžืกืคืจ ืืจื‘ืข, ืงืจื™ืื” ืขืœ ื”ืชื ืื™ื ื”ื ื•ืจืื™ื ืฉืœ ื”ื–ืžืŸ ื•ืืช ื”ื”ื‘ื“ืœ ืื™ืš ืฉื‘ื•ื™ื™ื ืฉืœ ื’ื–ืขื™ื ืฉื•ื ื™ื ื˜ื•ืคืœื•, ืžื”ืจ ืคื˜ื™ืฉื™ื ื”ื‘ื™ืชื” ืืช ื”ืฆื•ืจืš ืจืคื•ืจืžื” ืคื•ืœื™ื˜ื™ืช ื•ืฉื•ื•ื™ื•ืŸ ืืฉืจ ืžื ื“ืœื” ื ืœื—ื.

ืื™ ืจื•ื‘ืŸ

ื ืœืกื•ืŸ ืžื ื“ืœื” ื‘ื™ืœื” 27 ืฉื ื™ื ืฉืœ ื—ื™ื™ื• ื‘ื›ืœื ื•ืฉื™ืžืฉ ืืช ืจื•ื‘ ื’ื–ืจ ื”ื“ื™ืŸ ืฉืœื• ืขืœ ืื™ื™ื, ื—ืžื™ืฉื” ืง"ืž ืง"ืž ื”ืื™ ืžื—ื•ืฅ ืœื—ื•ืฃ ืฉืœ ืงื™ื™ืค ื˜ืื•ืŸ. ื˜ื™ื•ืœื™ื Robben Island ืœื”ืชื—ื™ืœ ืขืœ V & A Waterfront, ืฉื ืžืขื‘ื•ืจื•ืช ืœื”ืขื‘ื™ืจ ืื•ืชืš ืœื›ืœื ืœืฉืขื‘ืจ. ื–ื” ื™ื•ื ืžืื•ื“ regimented, ืืฉืจ ืœื•ืงื— ืื•ืชืš ืžืขื‘ื•ืจืช ืœืกื™ื•ืจ ื‘ืื•ื˜ื•ื‘ื•ืก ื•ืœื‘ืกื•ืฃ ื‘ืจื’ืœ ื›ื“ื™ ืœื“ืฉื“ืฉ ื‘ื›ืœื. ื ืกื• ืœืชืœื•ืช ื‘ื—ื–ืจื” ืžื”ืงื‘ื•ืฆื” ืฉืœืš ืœื”ืงื“ื™ืฉ ื–ืžืŸ ืžื” ืœื”ืจื”ืจ ื‘ืชื poky ื‘ืœืชื™ ืกื‘ื™ืจ ืฉื‘ื• ื ืœืกื•ืŸ ืžื ื“ืœื” ื‘ื™ืœื” 18 ืฉื ื™ื ืงืฉื” ืฉืœื ื™ื™ืืžืŸ ื•ื‘ื›ืœ ื–ืืช ื™ืฆื ืขื ืœื‘ ืžืœื ืกืœื™ื—ื” ื•ืœื ืฉื ืื”.

ืžื•ื–ื™ืื•ืŸ ื ืœืกื•ืŸ ืžื ื“ืœื”

ื”ื›ืฃ ื”ืžื–ืจื—ื™ ื’ืื” ื‘ืฆื“ืง ื‘ื‘ื ื• ื”ืžืคื•ืจืกื ื‘ื™ื•ืชืจ, ื•ื‘ืขื™ื™ืจื” ืื—ืจืช ืฉืœ ืžืชื™ืื˜ื” ื™ืฉ ืžื—ื•ื•ื” ืœืžื ื“ืœื”. ื‘ื ื™ื™ืŸ Bhunga ืžืคื•ืืจ ื”ื‘ืชื™ื ื‘ืžื•ื–ื™ืื•ืŸ ื ืœืกื•ืŸ ืžื ื“ืœื”, ืฉื‘ื• ืืชื” ื™ื›ื•ืœ ืœื—ืคื•ืจ ืงืฆืช ื™ื•ืชืจ ืขืžื•ืง ืœืชื•ืš ื”ืžื”ื•ืช ืฉืœ ื”ืื™ืฉ ื›ืืŸ ื›ื•ืœื ืžื›ื ื™ื Madiba (ืฉื ื”ืฉื‘ื˜ ืฉืœื•). ืชืืจื• ืœืขืฆืžื›ื ืœืฉื•ื—ื— ืขื ื”ืžืฉืคื—ื” ื”ืžื•ืจื—ื‘ืช ื•ืœืงื‘ืœ ืชื•ื‘ื ื” ืขืžื•ืงื” ื™ื•ืชืจ ืฉืœ ื”ื—ื™ื™ื ืฉืœ ืžื ื“ืœื”, ื•ืืชื” ืžืงื‘ืœ ืืช ื”ืจืขื™ื•ืŸ ืฉืœ ื”ืžื•ื–ื™ืื•ืŸ ื”ื–ื” ืฆื ื•ืข ืื‘ืœ ืžืขื ื™ื™ืŸ. ื‘ืชืขืจื•ื›ื” ืžื•ืคื™ืขื™ื ื›ืชื•ื‘ื™ื ื‘ื›ืชื‘ ื™ื“ ืžื”ื ืฉื™ื ืœืฉืขื‘ืจ ื•ื›ืžื” ืชืฆืœื•ืžื™ื ืฉื ืจืื™ื ืคื—ื•ืช. ืžื›ืชื‘ื™ื ื•ืžืชื ื•ืช ืฉื ืฉืœื—ื• ืœืžื ื“ืœื” ืžืฆื™ื’ื™ื ื›ื™ืฆื“ ื”ื•ื ืžืขืจื™ืฅ ืœื ืจืง ืžืงื•ืžื™, ืืœื ื‘ืจื—ื‘ื™ ื”ืขื•ืœื.

ืœื›ื™ื“ืช ืืชืจ

ื‘ืžืฉืš ืฉื ื™ื, ื”ื“ื‘ืจ ื”ื™ื—ื™ื“ ืฉืกื™ืžืŸ ืืช ื”ืืชืจ ื”ื”ื™ืกื˜ื•ืจื™ ื”ื—ืฉื•ื‘ ื”ื–ื” ื‘ื”ื•ื•ื™ื™ืง ื”ื™ื” ืฉืœื˜ ืฆื ื•ืข ื‘ืฆื“ ื”ื“ืจืš. ื–ื” ื”ื™ื” ื›ืืŸ ื‘ืฉื ืช 1962, ืœืื—ืจ 17 ื—ื•ื“ืฉื™ื ืฉืœ ื”ืชื—ืžืงื•ืช ืžืฉืœื˜ื•ื ื•ืช ื”ืืคืจื˜ื”ื™ื™ื“, ื ืœืกื•ืŸ ืžื ื“ืœื” ื ืขืฆืจ. ืืชืจ ืœื›ื™ื“ืช ืžื—ื•ื“ืฉ ื”ื•ื ืื ื“ืจื˜ื” ื”ื•ืœื ื™ื•ืชืจ ืœืื™ืจื•ืข ื›ื™ ื‘ืžื•ื‘ื ื™ื ืจื‘ื™ื ื™ืžืฉื™ืš ืœืขืฆื‘ ืืช ื”ืขืชื™ื“ ืฉืœ ืžื“ื™ื ื” ืฉืœืžื”. ื›ืืฉืจ ืืชื” ืžืชืงืจื‘ ืœืคืกืœ, 50 ืžื•ื˜ื•ืช ืžืชื›ืช ืœื™ื™ืฉืจ ืœื™ืฆื•ืจ ื“ื™ื•ืงืŸ ืžืคื•ืืจ ืฉืœ ืžื ื“ืœื”. ืชืขืจื•ื›ื•ืช ืื—ืจื•ืช ืขื“ื™ื™ืŸ ื‘ืขื™ืฆื•ืžื•, ืื‘ืœ ื™ืฉ ื‘ื™ืช ืงืคื” ืงื˜ืŸ ืฉื‘ื• ืืชื” ื™ื›ื•ืœ ืœืฉื‘ืช ื•ืœื”ืจื”ืจ ื‘ื”ื™ืกื˜ื•ืจื™ื” ืขื ื›ื•ืก ืžืขื•ืœื” ืฉืœ ื’ 'ื•.

Liliesleaf ืžืฉืง ื—ืงืœืื™

ื›ืืฉืจ ื”ืชื’ื•ืจืจ ื ืœืกื•ืŸ ืžื ื“ืœื” ื‘ื—ื•ื•ืช ืœื™ืœื™ื–ืืฃ, ื”ื•ื ื”ืœืš ื‘ืฉืžื• ืฉืœ ื“ื•ื“ ืžื•ื˜ืกืžืื™ื™, ื•ืœืคื—ื•ืช ืœืขื•ื‘ืจื™ ืื•ืจื—, ื”ื•ืขืกืง ืขืœ ืžื ืช ืœืขื‘ื“ ืืช ื”ืฉื˜ื—. ื–ื” ื”ื™ื” ืœืžืขืฉื” ื”ืžื˜ื” ื”ืžื—ืชืจืชื™ ืฉืœ ื”- ANC, ืฉื ื—ื™ ืžื ื“ืœื” ื‘ืžืฉืš ืฉื ื”. ื›ืฉื”ืฉืœื˜ื•ื ื•ืช ืคืฉื˜ื• ืขืœ ื”ืฉื˜ื— ื‘ -1963, ื•ืขืฆืจื• ืžืกืคืจ ืจื‘ ืฉืœ ืžืขืฆืจื™ื, ืžื ื“ืœื” ื›ื‘ืจ ื”ื™ื” ื‘ืžืขืฆืจ, ืืš ื‘ืกื•ืคื• ืฉืœ ื“ื‘ืจ ื”ื•ื ื ืฉืคื˜ ืขื ื—ื‘ืจื™ื• ื•ื ื™ื“ื•ืŸ ืœืžืืกืจ ืขื•ืœื ืขืœ ื›ืš ืฉื–ื™ื›ื” ืื•ืชื• ืœื”ืคืœืช ื”ืžื“ื™ื ื”. ื›ืœ ื”ืกื™ืคื•ืจ ื”ื•ื ืืžืจ ืขื›ืฉื™ื• ื‘ืคื™ืจื•ื˜ ืžืขื•ืœื” ื‘ืืžืฆืขื•ืช ืื™ื ื˜ืจืืงื˜ื™ื‘ื™, ืื•ื“ื™ื• ื•ื™ื–ื•ืืœื™ ืชืขืจื•ื›ื•ืช. ื”ืžืจื—ืง ืฉืœื” 25 ืง"ืž ืฆืคื•ื ื™ืช ืœืžืจื›ื– ื”ืขื™ืจ ื™ื•ื”ื ืกื‘ื•ืจื’ ื ื•ื˜ื” ืœืฉืžื•ืจ ืขืœ Liliesleaf ืขืฃ ืžืชื—ืช ืœืžื›"ื, ื›ืœื•ืžืจ ื™ื”ื™ื” ืœืš ืžืงื•ื ื™ื•ืชืจ ื›ืืŸ ืžืืฉืจ ื‘ืืชืจื™ื ืจื‘ื™ื ื”ืงืฉื•ืจื™ื ืžื ื“ืœื”. ืืคืฉืจ ื›ืžื” ืฉืขื•ืช ื›ื“ื™ ืœื—ืงื•ืจ ื‘ืื•ืคืŸ ืžืœื ืžื” ื”ื•ื ืื—ื“ ื”ืžื•ื–ื™ืื•ื ื™ื ื”ื˜ื•ื‘ื™ื ื‘ื™ื•ืชืจ ืฉืœ ื“ืจื•ื ืืคืจื™ืงื”.

ื‘ื™ืช ืžื ื“ืœื”

ืžื ื“ืœื” ืขื‘ืจ ืœื‘ื™ืช ื”ืฆื ื•ืข ื”ื–ื” ื‘ืกื•ื•ื˜ื• ื‘- 1946. "ื”ื”ืคืš ื”ื™ื” ื”ืคื•ืš, "ื›ืชื‘ ื‘ืื•ื˜ื•ื‘ื™ื•ื’ืจืคื™ื” ืฉืœื•, ื”ืœื™ื›ื” ืืจื•ื›ื” ืœื—ื•ืคืฉ, "ืื‘ืœ ื–ื” ื”ื™ื” ื”ื‘ื™ืช ื”ืืžื™ืชื™ ื”ืจืืฉื•ืŸ ืฉืœื™ ื•ืื ื™ ื”ื™ื™ืชื™ ื’ืื” ืžืื•ื“." ื”ื•ื ื’ืจ ื›ืืŸ ืขื ืืฉืชื• ื”ืจืืฉื•ื ื” ืื•ื•ืœื™ืŸ ื•ืื—ืจ ื›ืš ืขื ืืฉืชื• ื”ืฉื ื™ื™ื” ื•ื™ื ื™ ื•ื™ืœื“ื™ื”ื, ื•ื—ื–ืจ ื›ืขื‘ื•ืจ ื–ืžืŸ ืงืฆืจ ืœืื—ืจ ืฉื—ืจื•ืจื• ืžื”ื›ืœื ื‘- 1990.ื–ืžืŸ ืงืฆืจ ืœืื—ืจ ืžื›ืŸ ื”ื•ืกื‘ ื”ื‘ื™ืช ืœืžื•ื–ื™ืื•ืŸ, ื ืฉืžืจ ื›ืคื™ ืฉื”ื™ื” ื›ืฉืžื ื“ืœื” ื”ืชื’ื•ืจืจื” ื›ืืŸ. ืื ืืชื” ืจื•ืฆื” ืœื—ืฉื•ื‘ ืขืœ ื”ื—ื™ื™ื ืฉืœ ืžื ื“ืœื” ื‘ืกื•ื•ื˜ื•, ื›ื“ืื™ ืฉืชื’ื™ืข ืžื•ืงื“ื. ืจื—ื•ื‘ Vilakazi ื™ื›ื•ืœ ืœืงื‘ืœ ืขืกื•ืง ืžืื•ื“ ื•ืคืขื ืงื‘ื•ืฆื•ืช ื”ืกื™ื•ืจ ืœื”ื’ื™ืข ืชื•ื›ืœ ืœื—ืœื•ืง ืืช ื”ื‘ื™ืงื•ืจ ืฉืœืš ืžื ื“ืœื” ื‘ื™ืช ืขื ื”ืจื‘ื” ืื—ืจื™ื ืœื”ื•ื˜ ืœืงื‘ืœ ื›ืžื” ืžืฆืœื™ืคื” ืฉืœ ื‘ื™ืช ื”ืžืฉืคื—ื” ื”ืžืคื•ืจืกื.

Qunu

ืขื‘ื•ืจ ื”ืชืœืžื™ื“ ืงืฉื” ืœืžื•ืช ืžื ื“ืœื”, ื˜ื™ื•ืœ ื›ืคืจื™ Qunu ื”ื•ื ื”ืขืœื™ื™ื” ืœืจื’ืœ ื”ืื•ืœื˜ื™ืžื˜ื™ื‘ื™. ื–ื” ืœื ืจืง ื”ืžืงื•ื ืฉื‘ื• ื”ื•ื ื’ื“ืœ, ืฉื ื”ื•ื ืœืžื“ ื‘ื‘ื™ืช ื”ืกืคืจ ื•ืงื™ื‘ืœ ืืช ื”ืฉื ื”ื ื•ืฆืจื™ ื›ื™ ื”ืขื•ืœื ืžื›ื™ืจ ืื•ืชื• ืขืœ ื™ื“ื™ - ื–ื” ื”ื›ืคืจ ื‘ืฆื“ ื”ื›ื‘ื™ืฉ ื”ื•ื ื’ื ืžืงื•ื ืžื ื•ื—ื” ื”ืื—ืจื•ืŸ ืฉืœ ืžื ื“ืœื”. ื™ืฉ ืชืขืจื•ื›ื•ืช ืคืฉื•ื˜ื•ืช ื‘ ื ืœืกื•ืŸ ืžื ื“ืœื” ื”ื ื•ืขืจ ื•ื”ืžื•ืจืฉืช ืžืจื›ื–, ืื‘ืœ ืืชื” ื‘ืืžืช ืฆืจื™ืš ืžื“ืจื™ืš ืžืงื•ืžื™ ืœื”ืขืจื™ืš ื‘ืžืœื•ืื• ืืช ื”ืืชืจื™ื ืฉืœ ื”ื›ืคืจ ื”ืงื˜ืŸ, ื›ื•ืœืœ ืฉืจื™ื“ื™ื ืฉืœ ื‘ื™ืช ื”ืกืคืจ ืฉืœ ืžื ื“ืœื”, ื”ื›ื ืกื™ื™ื” ืฉื‘ื” ื”ื•ื˜ื‘ืœ ื•ื›ืžื” ืืชืจื™ื ืื—ืจื™ื ืชื•ื›ืœื• ืœื”ื›ื™ืจ ืื ืงืจืืช ื”ืœื™ื›ื” ืืจื•ื›ื” ืœื—ื•ืคืฉ. ื›ืืŸ ืชื•ื›ืœื• ืœืžืฆื•ื ื›ื‘ื•ื“ ืžื™ื•ื—ื“ ืขื‘ื•ืจ ื”ืื™ืฉ ื”ื›ืคืจื™ื™ื ืคืฉื•ื˜ ืงื•ืจืื™ื ื˜ื˜ื” - ืื‘ื.

ื‘ื™ืช ื”ืงื ืฆืœืจ ื•ืฆืœืฃ ื”ื‘ื•ืงืกืจื™ื

ืื ื™ืงืจื” ืœืš ืœื—ืงื•ืจ ืืช ื”ืจื—ื•ื‘ื•ืช ืฉืœ ืžืจื›ื– ื™ื•ื”ื ืกื‘ื•ืจื’ - ื•ืืชื” ื‘ืืžืช ืฆืจื™ืš, ืžืื– ื”ืชื—ื“ืฉื•ืช ืฉืœื” ื”ื•ื ืœื ืคื—ื•ืช ืžืจืฉื™ื - ืœืขืฉื•ืช ืขื™ืงื•ืฃ ืœืจื—ื•ื‘ ืคื•ืงืก. ื‘ื™ืช ื”ืงื ืฆืœืจ ืขืฆืžื• ืœื ื”ืจื‘ื” ืœื”ืกืชื›ืœ ื‘ื•, ืื‘ืœ ื—ืœืง ืžื”ื—ื™ื™ื ืฉืœ ืžื ื“ืœื” ื”ืชืจื—ืฉ ื‘ืชื•ืš ื”ืงื™ืจื•ืช ื”ืืœื”. ื–ื” ื›ืืŸ, ื›ื™ ื”ื•ื ื”ื™ื” ืฉื•ืชืฃ ืœืขืจื™ื›ืช ื“ื™ืŸ ืขื ืžืื‘ืง ื”ืžืื‘ืง ื”ื—ื‘ืจืชื™ ืื•ืœื™ื‘ืจ ื˜ืžื‘ื•. ืœื•ื—ื•ืช ืžื™ื“ืข ืคื ื™ื ื”ื—ื•ืฆื” ื“ืจืš ื—ืœื•ื ื•ืช ืงื•ืžืช ื”ืงืจืงืข, ื›ืš ืฉืชื•ื›ืœ ืœืงืจื•ื ืขืœ ื”ืžืื‘ืง ืฉืœื”ื ื ื’ื“ ืžืฉื˜ืจ ื”ืืคืจื˜ื”ื™ื™ื“ ื‘ืฉืขื•ืช ื”ืคื ืื™ ืฉืœืš. ืžืžื•ืœ ื”ื•ื ืฆืœืฃ ื‘ื•ืงืกืจ ื‘ื’ื•ื‘ื” ืฉื™ืฉื” ืžื˜ืจื™ื, ืคืกืœ ื”ืžืฆื™ื™ืŸ ืืช ืื—ื“ ืžื‘ื™ืœื•ื™ื™ื• ื”ืžื•ืขื“ืคื™ื ืฉืœ ืžื“ื™ื‘ื”. ืžืจืฉื™ื ืขื•ื“ ื™ื•ืชืจ ื”ื•ื ืฆื™ื•ืจ ืงื™ืจ ืขื ืงื™ ื‘ื’ื•ื‘ื” ืฉืœ 40 ืžื˜ืจ, ื”ืžื‘ื•ืกืก ืขืœ ืื•ืชื• ืชืฆืœื•ื ืฉืœ ืื’ืจื•ืฃ ืžื ื“ืœื” - ืชืžืฆื ืื•ืชื• ืฆื‘ื•ืข ืขืœ ืงื™ืจ ื‘ืจื•ื‘ืข ืžืื‘ื•ื ื’ ืฉื‘ืžื“ื™ื ืช ื™ื•ื”ื ืกื‘ื•ืจื’.

ื‘ื™ืช ื”ืขื™ืจื™ื™ื” ื•ืืช ื”ืžืฆืขื“ ื”ื’ื“ื•ืœ

ื›ืจื’ืข ืื™ืŸ ืฉื•ื ื“ื‘ืจ ืžืกืžืŸ ืืช ื”ืžืงื•ื ืฉื‘ื• ืžื ื“ืœื” ื ืชืŸ ืืช ื”ื ืื•ื ื”ืจืืฉื•ืŸ ืฉืœื• ื›ืื“ื ื—ื•ืคืฉื™ ื‘ืฉื ืช 1990. ื”ื”ืžื•ื ื™ื ื”ืชืืกืคื• ื‘ืžืฆืขื“ ื”ื’ื“ื•ืœ ืฉืœ ืงื™ื™ืค ื˜ืื•ืŸ ื›ื“ื™ ืœืขื•ื“ื“ ืืช ืกืžืœ ื”ืžืื‘ืง ื”ื—ื“ืฉ ืฉืคื•ืจืกื. "ื”ืงื•ืจื‘ื ื•ืช ื”ื‘ืœืชื™-ื ืœืื™ื ื•ื”ื”ืจื•ืื™ื™ื ืฉืœืš ืืคืฉืจื• ืœื™ ืœื”ื™ื•ืช ื›ืืŸ ื”ื™ื•ื, "ืืžืจ ืžืžืจืคืกืช ื”ืขื™ืจื™ื™ื”. "ืœื›ืŸ ืื ื™ ืžื ื™ื— ืืช ืฉื ื•ืช ื”ื—ื™ื™ื ื”ื ื•ืชืจื•ืช ื‘ื™ื“ื™ื™ื ืฉืœืš". ืžืฉื”ื‘ื™ืŸ ืืช ื—ืฉื™ื‘ื•ืชื• ืฉืœ ืืชืจ ื–ื”, ื”ืขื™ืจ ืฉืœ ืงื™ื™ืคื˜ืื•ืŸ ื ืžืฆืืช ื‘ืขื™ืฆื•ืžืŸ ืฉืœ ืชื•ื›ื ื™ื•ืช ืœื”ืงืžืช ืคืกืœ ื‘ื’ื•ื“ืœ ื˜ื‘ืขื™ ืฉืœ ืžื ื“ืœื” ืขืœ ื”ืžืจืคืกืช ืฉื‘ื” ื”ื•ื ื ืžืกืจ ื”ื ืื•ื.

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ืฉืชืฃ:

ื“ืคื™ื ื“ื•ืžื™ื

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