ื”ืื˜ื” ื‘ืขืจื™ื ื”ื™ืฉื ื•ืช ื•ื”ืžืงืกื™ืžื•ืช ื‘ื™ื•ืชืจ ืฉืœ ืกื™ืฆ'ื•ืืŸ

ื”ืื˜ื” ื‘ืขืจื™ื ื”ื™ืฉื ื•ืช ื•ื”ืžืงืกื™ืžื•ืช ื‘ื™ื•ืชืจ ืฉืœ ืกื™ืฆ'ื•ืืŸ

ืคืจื•ื‘ื™ื ืฆื™ื™ืช ืกื™ืฆ'ื•ืืŸ ื‘ื“ืจื•ื ืžืขืจื‘ ืกื™ืŸ ืฆื•ื“ืงืช, ื‘ืฆื“ืง, ื›ื•ืชืจื•ืช ื›ืžื•ืขื“ืฃ ืžื•ืขื“ืฃ ืœื ื•ืคื™ ื”ืจื™ื ื“ืจืžื˜ื™ื™ื, ืžืื›ืœื™ื ืžืชื•ื‘ืœื™ื ืœื”ืคืœื™ื, ื•ืขื™ืจ ื”ื‘ื™ืจื” ื”ื•ืžื”, ืฆ'ื ื’ื“ื•.

ืžื‘ืงืจื™ื ื–ืจื™ื ืคื—ื•ืช ืœืžืฆื•ื ืืช ื“ืจื›ื ืืœ ื”ืขืจื™ื ื”ื”ื™ืกื˜ื•ืจื™ื•ืช ืฉืœ ืกืฆ 'ื•ืืŸ, ืขื ื–ืืช, ื•ื‘ื›ืœ ื–ืืช ื‘ืงื”ื™ืœื•ืช ืืœื” ื”ื ื”ืจื•ืช ืงื˜ืŸ ืงื™ื™ื ืื•ืจื— ื—ื™ื™ื, ืื“ืจื™ื›ืœื•ืช, ืžื˜ื‘ื— ืฉื ืฉืืจ ื‘ืžื™ื“ื” ืจื‘ื” ืœืœื ืฉื™ื ื•ื™ ื‘ืžืฉืš ืžืื•ืช ืฉื ื™ื.

ื”ื”ื‘ื“ืœ ื”ื’ื“ื•ืœ ื‘ื™ื•ืชืจ ื‘ื™ืžื™ื ืืœื” ื”ื•ื, ื‘ืžืงื•ื ืกื—ืจ ืชื” ื•ืกื—ื•ืจื•ืช, ื”ืชื™ื™ืจื•ืช ืžืฉืชืœื˜ืช ื›ืžื• ืœืฆื™ื™ืจ ื”ื“ื•ืžื™ื ื ื˜ื™. ื‘ื™ืงื•ืจ ื‘ื›ืœ ื”ืขื™ื™ืจื•ืช ื”ื™ืฉื ื•ืช ืฉืœ ืกื™ืฆ'ื•ืืŸ ื”ื•ื ื”ื–ื“ืžื ื•ืช ืœื—ืงื•ืจ ืืช ื”ื”ื™ืกื˜ื•ืจื™ื” ื”ื—ื™ื” ื”ื–ืืช ืฉืœ ื”ืžื“ื™ื ื” ื”ืขืฆื•ืžื”, ื•ื™ื•ืชืจ ื•ื™ื•ืชืจ, ืื—ืช ื”ื“ืจื›ื™ื ื”ืื—ืจื•ื ื•ืช ืœืจืื•ืช ืงืฆื‘ ื—ื™ื™ื ืื™ื˜ื™ ื™ื•ืชืจ ื‘ืกื™ืŸ ื”ืžืชืจื—ื‘ืช.

Dujiangyan (้ƒฝๆฑŸๅ ฐ)

ืืฃ ืฉื”ืขื™ื™ืจื” ื”ื™ืฉื ื” ื‘ื™ื•ืชืจ ืฉืœ ืกื™ืฆ'ื•ืืŸ (ืงืจื•ื‘, ื ื•ืกื“ื” ื‘ืฉื ืช 250 ืœืคื ื”"ืก), ืื™ืŸ ืกืคืง ืฉื”ื“ื•-ื’'ื™ืื ื’ื™ืืŸ ื”ื•ื ื”ื—ืฉื•ื‘ ื‘ื™ื•ืชืจ, ืฉื›ืŸ ื›ืืŸ ื”ื™ื” ืžื•ืฉืœ ืœื™ ื‘ื™ื ื’ ืžืฉื•, ืฉื”ืงื™ื ืืช ืžืขืจื›ืช ื”ื”ืฉืงื™ื” ืฉืœ ื”ืขื™ืจ ื‘ืžื”ืœืš ืชืงื•ืคืช ื”ืœื•ื—ืžื™ื (475) -221 ืœืคื ื”"ืก). ื”ืžื‘ืงืจื™ื ื”ืžื•ื“ืจื ื™ื™ื Dujiangyan ื™ื›ื•ืœ ืœืจืื•ืช ืืช ืคืขื•ืœืชื• ืฉืœ ืžืขืจื›ืช ื”ืฉืงื™ื” ื–ื• ืขื“ื™ื™ืŸ ืคื•ื ืงืฆื™ื•ื ืœื™, ืคืœื ื‘ื™ื•ื ืฉืœื”, ืœื˜ื™ื™ืœ ื‘ืื–ื•ืจ ื”ืขื™ืจ ื”ืขืชื™ืงื” ื”ืงื˜ื ื” ืœื‘ืงืจ ื‘ืžืงื“ืฉื™ื ืจื‘ื™ื ื›ื™ ื”ืงื”ื™ืœื•ืช ื”ืžืงื•ืžื™ื•ืช ื‘ื ืชื” ืœืชืช ืชื•ื“ื”. ืžื“ื™ ืฉื ื” ื‘ื™ื•ื ืงื‘ื•ืจื”-ืกื•ื—ืฃ ื™ื•ื, ืคืกื˜ื™ื‘ืœ ืกื™ื ื™ ืžืกื•ืจืชื™ ืฉื—ื•ื’ื’ ืื‘ื•ืช, Dujiangyan ืžื—ื–ื™ืงื” "ื˜ืงืก ืฉื—ืจื•ืจ ืžื™ื" ื›ื“ื™ ืœืฆื™ื™ืŸ ืืช ื”ื”ื™ืฉื’ื™ื ืฉืœ ืœื™ ื‘ื™ื ื’ ืœื›ื‘ื“ ืืช ื–ื›ืจื•.

Dujiangyan ื”ื•ื ื ืกื™ืขื” ื‘ืจื›ื‘ืช ื—ืฆื™ ืฉืขื” ืžืŸ ื”ืชื—ื ื” ื”ืจืืฉื™ ืฉืœ ืฆ 'ื ื’ื“ื•; ืจื›ื‘ื•ืช ืœืœื›ืช ืžืกืคืจ ืคืขืžื™ื ื‘ื™ื•ื ืืœ ืชื—ื ืช Lidui Gongyuan ืžืžืฉ ืžื—ื•ืฅ ืœืขื™ืจ ื”ืขืชื™ืงื”. ืื•ื˜ื•ื‘ื•ืกื™ื ืชื›ื•ืคื™ื ื’ื ืœืจื•ืฅ ืžืชื—ื ืช Chadianzi ืฉืœ ืฆ'ื ื’ื“ื• ื‘ืžืฉืš 45 ื“ืงื•ืช ื ืกื™ืขื” ืœืชื—ื ื” ื”ืžืจื›ื–ื™ืช ืฉืœ Dujiangyan.

ืคื™ื ื’ืœ (ๅนณ ไน)

ืคืขื ืื—ืช ืœืขืฆื•ืจ ื—ืฉื•ื‘ ืขืœ ื›ื‘ื™ืฉ ื”ืชื” ื”ืขืชื™ืงื” ืกื•ืก ืกื•ืก ื”ื›ื‘ื™ืฉ ื‘ื™ืŸ ื™ื•ื ืืŸ ืขืฉื™ืจ ืชื” ื• ื˜ื™ื‘ื˜ ื”ืืžื™ืŸ ืœื”ื™ื•ืช ืœืคื—ื•ืช ืืœืคื™ื™ื ืฉื ื”, Pingle ืฉืœ ื”ื™ื•ื ื”ื•ื ื™ื•ืชืจ ืขื™ืจื•ื ื™ื™ื ืžืืฉืจ ื”ืžืกืœื•ืœ ืงืจื•ื•ืืŸ. ืชื•ืฉื‘ื™ ื”ืขื™ืจ ืฆ'ื ื’ื“ื• ืžืฉื•ื—ื—ื™ื ื›ืืŸ ื‘ื”ืžื•ื ื™ื”ื ื‘ืžื”ืœืš ื™ืžื™ ื”ืงื™ืฅ ื”ื—ืžื™ื ืœืฉื—ื•ืช ืื• ืœืขืกื•ืง ื”ืจืคืชืงื” ืงืœื” ื›ืžื• ืจืคื˜ื™ื ื’ ื•ืฆื™ื ื•ืจ. ืžื—ื•ืฅ ืœืขื•ื ื” ืฉื˜ื•ืคืช ื”ืฉืžืฉ, ืคื™ื ื’ืœ ืžืกืชื•ื‘ื‘ืช ื™ื•ืชืจ ืกื‘ื™ื‘ ื™ืฉื™ื‘ื” ื‘ืฆ'ืื˜ื™ื ื‘ื‘ืชื™ ื”ืชื” ื”ืจื‘ื™ื ืฉืœื” ืื• ืžืชื—ืช ืœืขืฆื™ ื‘ืื ื™ื ื’ ื”ืžืฉืชืœืฉืœื™ื ืžืฉื ื™ ืฆื“ื™ื• ืฉืœ ื ื”ืจ ื‘ืื™ื™ืžื•. ื™ืฉ ื’ื ื”ื–ื“ืžื ื•ื™ื•ืช ืœืกื™ื™ืจ ื‘ืžื•ื–ื™ืื•ื ื™ื ื”ืžืงื•ืžื™ื™ื ื•ืœืงื—ืช ืืžืคืจ ื“ืจืš ื”ื›ืคืจ ื”ื›ืžืขื˜ ืœื ื ื’ืข ื–ื” ืžืชื—ื™ืœ ืžืžืฉ ืžืขื‘ืจ ืœืงืฆื” ื”ื“ืจื•ืžื™ ืฉืœ ื”ืขื™ืจ, ืื‘ืœ ื”ืงืฆื‘ ื”ืื™ื˜ื™ ืฉืœ ื”ื—ื™ื™ื ื”ืžืงื•ืžื™ื™ื ืžืงืœื” ืขืœ ื™ื•ื ืื• ื™ื•ืžื™ื™ื ืœื—ืžื•ืง ื›ืžืขื˜ ืžื‘ืœื™ ืžืฉื™ื.

ืื•ื˜ื•ื‘ื•ืกื™ื ื™ื•ืฆืื™ื ืœืื•ืจืš ื›ืœ ื”ื‘ื•ืงืจ ืžืชื—ื ืช ืฆ'ื™ื ื ืžืŸ ืฉืœ ืฆ'ื ื’ื“ื• ืœื˜ื™ื•ืœ ื‘ืŸ ืฉืขืชื™ื™ื ืœืคื™ื ื’ืœ, ืื ื›ื™ ื—ืœืงื ื™ื—ื™ื™ื‘ื• ืฉื™ื ื•ื™ ื‘ืขื™ืจ ื”ืกืžื•ื›ื” ืฆ'ื™ื ื’ืœื™ื™.

Langzhong (้˜† ไธญ)

ื‘ืžืจื•ืงื• ืฉืœ ืกืฆ'ื•ืืŸ, ื”ืจื•ื‘ืข ื”ื™ืฉืŸ ืฉืœ ืœื ื’ืฆ'ื•ื ื’ ื ื—ืฉื‘ ืœืื—ื“ ืžืืจื‘ืขืช ื”ืขื™ื™ืจื•ืช ื”ื”ื™ืกื˜ื•ืจื™ื•ืช ื”ื’ื“ื•ืœื•ืช ืฉืœ ืกื™ืŸ. ื”ื™ืกื˜ื•ืจื™ืช ื”ื™ื“ื•ืขื” ื›ื‘ื™ืจืช ื”ืžื“ื™ื ื” Ba ืž 476BC, ื”ื•ืœื“ืชื• ืฉืœ ื”ืคื ื’ ืฉื•ืื™, ื•ืืช ื”ื‘ื™ืช ืฉืœ Zhangfei: ื’ื™ื‘ื•ืจ ืžืงื•ืžื™ ื ืขืจืฅ ื•ื”ื’ื ืจืœ ื”ืžืคื•ืจืกื ืฉืœ ื”ืชืงื•ืคื” ืฉืœื•ืฉ ื”ืžืžืœื›ื•ืช (220-280AD). ืืžื ื ื›ื™ื•ื Langzhong ืื•ืœื™ ืื™ื‘ื“ื• ืคืขื ื—ืฉื™ื‘ื•ืช ืคื•ืœื™ื˜ื™ืช ื’ื“ื•ืœื” ืฉืœื”, ื”ืžื‘ืงืจื™ื ืขื“ื™ื™ืŸ ื‘ืื™ื ืœื—ืงื•ืจ ืืช ื”ืขื™ืจ ื”ืขืชื™ืงื” ืžืฉื•ื—ื–ืจ ื”ื™ื˜ื‘ ื‘ื ื™ื™ื ื™ื ืžืกื•ืจืชื™ื™ื. ืื•ืœืžื•ืช ื”ื‘ื—ื™ื ื” ื”ืงื™ืกืจื™ื™ื ื ื—ืฉื‘ื™ื ื‘ื™ืŸ ื”ื“ื•ื’ืžืื•ืช ื”ืžืฉืžืจื•ืช ื”ื˜ื•ื‘ื•ืช ื‘ื™ื•ืชืจ ื‘ืกื™ืŸ ืฉืœ ืžืจื›ื–ื™ ื”ื‘ื“ื™ืงื•ืช ื”ืœืœื•, ืฉืคืขื ืžื™ืœืื• ืชืคืงื™ื“ ืžืจื›ื–ื™ ื‘ืื›ืœื•ืก ื”ื‘ื™ื•ืจื•ืงืจื˜ื™ื” ื”ืื™ืžืคืจื™ืืœื™ืช ืฉืฉืžืจื” ืขืœ ื”ืื™ืžืคืจื™ื” ื”ืกื™ื ื™ืช ื”ื’ื“ื•ืœื”. ื‘ื™ืŸ ื”ืœื™ื‘ื” ื”ื”ื™ืกื˜ื•ืจื™ืช, ืกื‘ื™ื‘ ื’ื‘ืขื•ืช ืžื™ื•ืขืจื•ืช ืžื ื•ืงื“ื™ื ืžืงื“ืฉื™ื, ื•ืืช ื”ืขื™ืจ ื”ืขืชื™ืงื” ืฉืœ ื”ืขื™ืจ ื”ืจื‘ื” ื‘ืชื™ ืžืœื•ืŸ ืžืฉื•ืคืฆื™ื, ื–ื• ื”ืขื™ืจ ืฉืœืขืชื™ื ืงืจื•ื‘ื•ืช ืœื•ืงื— ืืช ื”ื ื•ืกืขื™ื ื‘ืžืฉืš ื–ืžืŸ ืจื‘ ื™ื•ืชืจ ืžืžื” ืฉื”ื ืฆื™ืคื• ื‘ืชื—ื™ืœื”.

ืื•ื˜ื•ื‘ื•ืกื™ื ื™ื•ืฆืื™ื ืœืื•ืจืš ื›ืœ ื”ื™ื•ื ืžืชื—ื ืช ื”ืื•ื˜ื•ื‘ื•ืก ืฉืœ ืฆ'ื ื’ื“ื• ื‘ื™ื™ืžืŸ (Chengdu's Beimen), ืœื˜ื™ื•ืœ ืฉืœ ืืจื‘ืข ืฉืขื•ืช ืืœ ืœืื ื’-ื’'ื•ื ื’ (Langzhong).

Liujiang (ๆŸณๆฑŸ)

ืขืœ ื™ื“ื™ ืฉื ื™ ื ื”ืจื•ืช ื•ื’ื•ื‘ืœ ื‘ืฉืœื™ืฉื™ืช, Liujiang ืžื•ืงืฃ ื’ื‘ืขื•ืช ื™ืจื•ืงื•ืช ื™ืจื•ืงื•ืช ืžื ื•ืงื“ ื’ืฉืจื™ื ื’ื—ืžื ื™. ืื•ืœื™ ื–ื• ืขื™ืจ ื—ืœื•ืžื•ืช ืฉืœ ืืžืŸ ืื• ืฆืœื, ืื‘ืœ ืžื™ืงื•ืžื” ื”ืžืจื•ื—ืง ื”ืจื—ืง ืžืขืจื™ื ื’ื“ื•ืœื•ืช ื•ื—ื•ืกืจ ืžืฉืžืขื•ืช ื”ื™ืกื˜ื•ืจื™ืช ื‘ื”ืฉื•ื•ืื” ืœืขืจื™ื ื™ืฉื ื•ืช ืื—ืจื•ืช ื‘ืกื™ืฆ'ื•ืืŸ (ื–ื” ืจืง ืฉืžื•ื ื” ืžืื•ืช ืฉื ื”, ืื—ืจื™ ื”ื›ืœ) ืฉืžืจื• ืืช ืœื™ืื•ื’'ื™ืื ื’ ืžืขืœ ื”ืžื›"ื ืฉืœ ืชื™ื™ืจื•ืช ื”ื”ืžื•ื ื™ื. ืขึทื›ืฉืึธื™ื•. ืื‘ืœ ื–ื” ืขื“ื™ื™ืŸ ืืจื•ื– ืขื ืื“ืจื™ื›ืœื•ืช ืขืฅ ืžืงืกื™ืžื”, ื˜ื™ื™ืœืช ื”ื—ื•ืฃ ืžืกืœื•ืœื™ ื”ืœื™ื›ื” ื›ื™ ื”ืจื•ื— ืฉืœื”ื ื“ืจืš ื”ื›ืคืจื™ ื”ืกืžื•ืš; ืขื‘ื•ืจ ืื™ืคืฉื”ื• ื›ื“ื™ ืœื”ืชืจื—ืง ื”ืงืฆื‘ ื”ืžื”ื™ืจ ืฉืœ ื”ื—ื™ื™ื ืื• ื ืกื™ืขื•ืช ื‘ืกื™ืŸ, Liujiang ื‘ื”ื—ืœื˜ ื—ืœื™ืคื•ืช.

ื”ื ืกื™ืขื” Liujiang ื”ื•ื ื‘ืขืจืš ืฉืœื•ืฉ ืฉืขื•ืช ืžืชื—ื ืช ื”ืื•ื˜ื•ื‘ื•ืก Xinnanmen ืฉืœ ืฆ'ื ื’ื“ื•, ื”ืžืขื‘ืจ ืœืื•ื˜ื•ื‘ื•ืก ื”ืžืงื•ืžื™ ื‘ื”ื•ื ื’ื™ื”.

ืœื™ื–ื•ืื ื’ (ๆŽๅบ„)

ืขืœ ืขื™ืงื•ืœ ืฉืงื˜ ืฉืœ ื”ื ื”ืจ ื™ืื ื’ื–ื™ ื‘ื“ืจื•ื ืกื™ืฆ'ื•ืืŸ, ื’ื•ื“ืœื” ื”ืงื˜ืŸ ืฉืœ ื”ืขื™ืจ ืžื™ื ื’ ืœื™ื ื’ื•ืื ื’ ื”ืฉื•ืฉืœืช ืžืกื•ื•ื” ืืช ืชืคืงื™ื“ื” ื”ื—ืฉื•ื‘ ื‘ื”ื™ืกื˜ื•ืจื™ื” ื”ืกื™ื ื™ืช. ื‘ืžื”ืœืš ืžืœื—ืžืช ืกื™ืŸ ื•ื™ืคืŸ ื”ืฉื ื™ื™ื” ื•ืžืœื—ืžืช ื”ืขื•ืœื ื”ืฉื ื™ื™ื”, ืžื•ืกื“ื•ืช ืืงื“ืžื™ื™ื ืžื›ืœ ืจื—ื‘ื™ ื”ืืจืฅ ื ืืœืฆื• ืœืคื ื•ืช ืืช ื”ืงืžืคื•ืกื™ื ืฉืœื”ื ื•ืœื‘ืจื•ื— ื”ื™ื‘ืฉื”. ืจื‘ื™ื ื ื—ืชื• ื‘ืœื™ื–ื•ืื ื’, ืžื” ืฉื”ื•ืคืš ืื•ืชื•, ื‘ืžืฉืš ื–ืžืŸ ืžื”, ืœืื—ื“ ื”ืžืจื›ื–ื™ื ื”ืืงื“ืžื™ื™ื ื”ืขื™ืงืจื™ื™ื ืฉืœ ืกื™ืŸ. ืžื‘ืงืจื™ื ื”ื™ื•ื ื™ื›ื•ืœื™ื ืœื—ืงื•ืจ ื”ืจื‘ื” ืžื‘ื ื™ื ืฉืžื•ืจื™ื ื”ื™ื˜ื‘ ืฉืคืขื ื”ื™ื• ืืœื” ื”ืื•ื ื™ื‘ืจืกื™ื˜ืื•ืช, ื›ืžื• ื’ื ืกื‘ื™ื‘ ืžืงื“ืฉื™ื ื•ืชืจื›ื•ื‘ื•ืช ื”ืžืฉืคื—ื”, ืื• ืคืฉื•ื˜ ืœืฉื•ื˜ื˜ ื ืชื™ื‘ื™ ื”ืขื™ืจ ื”ื™ืฉื ื” ื•ื”ืฉืงื˜ื” ื›ืคื™ ืฉื”ื ืžืชืคืชืœื™ื ื‘ืžืขืœื” ื”ื’ื‘ืขื” ืžืŸ ื”ื ื”ืจ. ืื ืืชื” ืจืขื‘, ืœืคืงื•ื— ืขื™ืŸ ืขืœ "ืœื™ื–ื•ืื ื’ ื‘ืฉืจ ืœื‘ืŸ" - ื–ื” ืฆืœื—ืช ื“ืง ืคืจื•ืก ื“ืง ืžืชื•ื‘ืœ ื—ื–ื™ืจ ืžืคื•ืจืกื ืขืœ ืคื ื™ ืกืฆ 'ื•ืืŸ, ืื‘ืœ ืžืงื•ืจื• ืžืžืฉ ื›ืืŸ Lizhuang.

ืื•ื˜ื•ื‘ื•ืกื™ื ื™ื•ืฆืื™ื ืžืชื—ื ืช ืฆ'ื™ื ื ื“ื• ืฉืœ ืฆ'ื ื’ื“ื• ืขื‘ื•ืจ ื”ืขื™ื™ืจื” ื™ื™ื‘ื™ืŸ ื‘ืžืจื—ืง 5 ืฉืขื•ืช ื ืกื™ืขื” ืžืฉื, ืฉื ืืชื ืžืขื‘ื™ืจื™ื ืืช ื”ื ืกื™ืขื” ื‘ื—ืฆื™ ืฉืขื” ืœืชื—ื ืช ื”ืจื›ื‘ืช ืฉืœ ืœื ื–ื•ืื ื’.

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ืฉืชืฃ:

ื“ืคื™ื ื“ื•ืžื™ื

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