ืื ื˜ืืจืงื˜ื™ืงื” ื‘ืฉื™ื˜: ืžืกืข ืœืขื•ืœื ืื—ืจ

ืื ื˜ืืจืงื˜ื™ืงื” ื‘ืฉื™ื˜: ืžืกืข ืœืขื•ืœื ืื—ืจ

ืžืกืข ืฉื™ื™ื˜ ื‘ืื ื˜ืืจืงื˜ื™ืงื” ื”ื•ื ืœื ืจืง ืจืฉื™ืžื” ืืงืจืื™ืช ืฉืœ ืจืฉื™ืžืช ื“ืœื™ - ื”ื™ื‘ืฉืช ื”ืœื‘ื ื” ืžืฉืชืžืฉืช ื‘ื™ื•ืคื™ ื›ื•ื— ื•ื™ื—ื™ื“ ืฉื ืžืฉืš ื–ืžืŸ ืจื‘ ืื—ืจื™ ืฉืขื–ื‘ืชื ืืช ื”ืžืจื—ื‘ื™ื ื”ืงืคื•ืื™ื ื•ื”ืคื™ื ื’ื•ื•ื™ื ื™ื ื”ืžื ื•ืงื“ื™ื. ืžืฆื ืืช ืžืงื•ืžืš ืขืœ ื›ื•ื›ื‘ ื”ืœื›ืช ืฉื‘ื• ื”ื˜ื‘ืข ื”ื™ื” ื”ืจื’ืข ื”ื˜ื•ื‘ ื‘ื™ื•ืชืจ ืฉืœื”.

'ื“ืจื™ื™ืง ืฉื™ื™ืง'

ื”ืกืคื™ื ื” ื ื•ื˜ื” ื‘ืขื“ื™ื ื•ืช ืžืฆื“ ืœืฆื“. ืกื›ื•"ื ืžื—ืœื™ืง ืžืŸ ื”ืฉื•ืœื—ื ื•ืช, ื”ืฆืœื—ืช ื”ืžืชื ื’ืฉืช ื•ื”ื ื•ืกืขื™ื ื”ืื—ืจื™ื ืžืชื ื•ื“ื“ื™ื ืกื‘ื™ื‘ ื›ืื™ืœื• ื”ื ืคื•ื’ืขื™ื ื‘ื•ื•ื“ืงื” ืขืœ ืกื™ืคื•ืŸ ืืงื“ืžื™ื™ืง ื™ื•ืคื”, ืกืคื™ื ืช ืžื—ืงืจ ืฉืœ ื”ืงื•ื˜ื‘ ื”ืจื•ืกื™. ื–ื”ื• ื–ื”, ื–ื”ื• "ื“ืจื™ื™ืง ืฉื™ื™ืง" ื”ื™ื“ื•ืขื” ืœืฉืžืฆื” ืฉื”ื–ื”ื™ืจื• ืื•ืชื ื•: ื”ืชื ื•ื“ื“ื•ืช ื—ืกืจืช ืจื—ืžื™ื, ืžืชื ื“ื ื“ืช, ื”ืžืขื™ื“ื” ืขืœ ืื•ืคืง ื•ืื•ืงื™ื™ื ื•ืก โ€‹โ€‹ืขืœ ืคื ื™ ื—ื–ืจื”. ื ืคืจื“ื ื• ืžืื•ืฉื•ื•ื™ืื”, ื”ืคืœื™ื’ื• ืžืขืจื•ืฅ ื‘ื™ื’ืœ ื•ืขื›ืฉื™ื• ืคื’ืขื ื• ื‘ืžื™ื ืคืชื•ื—ื™ื - ืœื ืจืง ืžื™ื ืคืชื•ื—ื™ื, ืืœื ืžืขื‘ืจ ื“ืจื™ื™ืง, ืฉืฉื˜ื—ื• 600 ืงื™ืœื•ืžื˜ืจ, ื›ื•ื›ื‘ ื”ืœื›ืช, ืฉื‘ื• ื”ืื•ืงื™ื™ื ื•ืก โ€‹โ€‹ื”ืื˜ืœื ื˜ื™ ื•ื”ืื•ืงื™ื ื•ืก ื”ืฉืงื˜ ืžืชื ื’ืฉื™ื.

ื‘ื”ื’ื™ืขื ืžืงืฆื” ื“ืจื•ื ืืžืจื™ืงื” ืœืื ื˜ืืจืงื˜ื™ืงื”, ื”ืžื™ืฆืจ ืžืขื•ืœื ืœื ื”ื™ื” ืฉื™ื˜ ืคืฉื•ื˜. ื•ืื›ืŸ, ื”ื•ื ืฆื™ื ืŸ ืคืขื ืืช ืœื‘ื ืฉืœ ื ื•ื•ื˜ื™ื ืืžื™ืฆื™ื, ืขื ื’ืœื™ื ืื“ื™ืจื™ื ื•ืกืขืจื•ืช ืื›ื–ืจื™ื•ืช ืฉื”ืฉืœื™ื›ื• ืกืคื™ื ื•ืช ื›ืžื• ื‘ื•ื‘ื•ืช ื ื™ื™ืจ, ื•ืžื ืขื• ืื•ืชืŸ ืฉื•ื‘ ื•ืฉื•ื‘ ืžืœื”ื’ื™ืข ืœื™ื‘ืฉืช. ื”ื’ื“ื•ืœ ื‘ื™ื•ืชืจ ืฉืœ ื”ืžืื” ื” -16 Mariners, ืกืจ ืคืจื ืกื™ืก ื“ืจื™ื™ืง, ื ืชืŸ ืืช ื”ืฉื ืืช ืฉืžื”, ืื‘ืœ ื•ื™ืœื Schouten ื—ืฆื” ืื•ืชื• ื”ืจืืฉื•ืŸ ื‘ืฉื ืช 1616, ืžืขื’ืœ ื•ืืช ืฉืžื•ืช ืงื™ื™ืค ื”ื•ืจืŸ ื‘ืชื”ืœื™ืš.

"ืื ื™ ืžื‘ื˜ื™ื— ืœืš ืฉืื ื—ื ื• ื ื“ื ื“ ื•ืœื’ืœื’ืœ", ืื•ืžืจ ืžื ื”ื™ื’ ื”ืžืฉืœื—ืช ื‘ื•ืจื™ืก ื•ื™ื™ื– ืขื ื—ื™ื•ืš ื™ื“ืข. "ื•ืื ื™ ืžืชื›ื•ื•ืŸ ื›ืžื• ACDC '. ืื ื—ื ื• ื—ื•ืฆื™ื ืืช ื”ื™ื ื•ืืช ื”ืกื•ืคื•ืช ื”ื—ื–ืงื•ืช ืขืœ ืกืฃ ื”ื‘ื•ืคื•ืจ, ื•ื‘ืขื•ื“ ืื ื—ื ื• ืœื ืžืžืฉ ืžื›ื™ื ืืช ื”ืจืืฉ, ืื ื—ื ื• ื‘ื”ื—ืœื˜ ืžืชื ื“ื ื“ื™ื ืœื™ืฉื•ืŸ ื‘ื“ืจื’ืฉื™ื ืฉืœื ื• ื‘ืื•ืชื• ืœื™ืœื”. ืื‘ืœ ืฉื•ืžืข ื•ืชื™ืงื™ื ืกื™ืคื•ืจื™ ืื™ืžื” ื ื•ืกืข ืื ื˜ืืจืงื˜ื™ืงื”, ื ืจืื” ืฉืื ื—ื ื• ื”ื•ืจื™ื“ื• ืงืœื•ืช. ื›ืืฉืจ ื”ืื•ืงื™ื™ื ื•ืก โ€‹โ€‹ื”ื•ื ื”ื‘ื•ื’ื“ื ื™ ื‘ื™ื•ืชืจ ืฉืœื”, ื’ืœื™ื ื™ื›ื•ืœื™ื ืืคื™ืœื• ืœื”ื’ื™ืข ืœืกื™ืคื•ืŸ ื”ืขืœื™ื•ืŸ, ื›ืžืขื˜ ื‘ืœื™ืขื” ืืช ื”ืกืคื™ื ื” ื›ื•ืœื”, ื ืืžืจ ืœื™.

"ืืชื” ืฆืจื™ืš ืœื”ืจื•ื•ื™ื— ืื ื˜ืืจืงื˜ื™ืงื” - ื“ืจื™ื™ืง ื”ื•ื ื›ืจื˜ื™ืก ื”ื›ื ื™ืกื” ืฉืœืš, ื–ื” ื˜ืงืก ืžืขื‘ืจ", ืื•ืžืจ ื“"ืจ ืืจื™ Friedlaender, ื‘ื™ื•ืœื•ื’ ืœื•ื•ื™ืชืŸ ืขืœ ื”ืœื•ื— ืคืจื•ืคืกื•ืจ ื—ื‘ืจ ื‘ืžื›ื•ืŸ ื™ืžื™ืช ืฉืœ ืื•ื ื™ื‘ืจืกื™ื˜ืช ืื•ืจื’ื•ืŸ ืกื˜ื™ื™ื˜ (mmi.oregonstate.edu) . ืืจื™ ื”ื•ื ืื—ื“ ื”ืžื•ืžื—ื™ื ืจื‘ื™ื ืืฉืจ ืœื‘ื“ืจ ื•ืœื—ื ืš ืื•ืชื ื• ืขืœ ื™ื•ืžื™ื™ื ื“ืจื™ื™ืง ื”ืžืขื‘ืจ, ืขื titbits ืžืจืชืง ืขืœ ื›ืœ ื“ื‘ืจ, ืžืŸ ื”ื”ืชื ื”ื’ื•ืช ืฉืœ humpbacks ืื™ืš ืœืกืคืจ ื’ 'ื™ื ื’ื• ืžืŸ ื”ืคื™ื ื’ื•ื•ื™ืŸ ืกื ื˜ืจ. ื‘ื™ืŸ ื”ืจืฆืื•ืช, ืื ื—ื ื• ืžื›ื™ืจื™ื ืื—ื“ ืืช ื”ืฉื ื™ - ืจื‘ื™ื ืขืœ ื”ืžืกืข ื”ื, ื›ืžื•ื ื™, ืœื‘ืงืจ ื‘ื™ื‘ืฉืช ื”ืฉื‘ื™ืขื™ืช ืฉืœื”ื. ื•ื›ืืฉืจ ื”ืชื ื•ื“ื“ื•ืช ืฉื•ื›ื›ืช ืœืจื’ืข, ืื ื—ื ื• ื™ื•ืฆืื™ื ืืœ ื”ืกื™ืคื•ืŸ, ืžื‘ื™ื˜ื™ื ื”ื—ื•ืฆื” ืขืœ ื”ืื•ืงื™ื™ื ื•ืก โ€‹โ€‹ื”ืื™ื ืกื•ืคื™ ื•ืขื“ ืกื•ืคื•ืช-ืกืขืจื” ืžื–ื“ืžื ื™ื ืื• ืืœื‘ื˜ืจื•ืกื™ื ื ื•ื“ื“ื™ื ื”ืžืฉืชืœื˜ื™ื ืขืœ ืจื•ื—ื•ืช ื‘ืฉืžื™ื ื‘ื•ื“ื“ื™ื.

ืื ื˜ืืจืงื˜ื™ืงื” ืขื•ืœื”

ืืชื” ื™ื›ื•ืœ ืœื”ืชืขืœื ืžืขืœ ืชืžื•ื ื•ืช ื‘ืžื’ื–ื™ื ื™ื ืžื‘ืจื™ืง ื•ืœืฆืคื•ืช ืกืจื˜ื™ื ื“ื•ืงื•ืžื ื˜ืจื™ื™ื ื‘ื˜ืœื•ื•ื™ื–ื™ื”, ืื‘ืœ ืฉื•ื ื“ื‘ืจ ืœื ื‘ืืžืช ืžื›ื™ืŸ ืื•ืชืš ืœืžืฆื™ืื•ืช ืฉืœ ืื ื˜ืืจืงื˜ื™ืงื”. ื–ื” ืžืงื•ื ืฉืืชื” ืฆืจื™ืš ืœืจืื•ืช ืขื ืฉืชื™ ื”ืขื™ื ื™ื™ื ืฉืœืš, ืชื—ื•ืฉื”, ืœื ืฉื•ื. ืื ื™ ืžื‘ื™ืŸ ืืช ื–ื” ืžื™ื“ ื‘ืจื’ืข ืฉืื ื™ ืžืจื™ื ืืช ื”ืชืจื™ืกื™ื ื‘ื‘ืงืชื” ืฉืœื™ ื•ืžืจื’ื™ืฉ ื’ืœ ืฉืœ ื”ืชืจื’ืฉื•ืช ืžืชื’ืœื’ืœ ืžืขืœื™ - ื”ื ื” ื–ื”, ืคืจื•ืฉ ืœืคื ื™ ื‘ื›ืœ ืชื”ื™ืœืชื• ื”ืžื•ืฉืงื”.

ืžื” ืฉืื ื—ื ื• ืžืชืขื•ืจืจื™ื ืืœื™ื• ื”ื•ื ืฉืžื™ื ื›ื—ื•ืœื™ื ืคืจื™ืš, ืื“ื•ื•ื” ืฉืœ ื”ืจื™ื ื›ื”ื™ื, ืžื•ืฉืœื’ื™ื ืฉืœื’ ื•ืžืกื™ื‘ืช ืงื‘ืœืช ืคื ื™ื ื‘ืžืคืจืฅ ืคื•ืจื ื™ื™ื” ื‘ืฆื•ืจืช 30 ืœื•ื•ื™ื™ืชื ื™ื ื’ื‘ืฉื•ืฉื™ื™ื ืžืชื ืคื—ื™ื, ืคื•ืจืฆื™ื ื•ืฆืœื•ืœื™ื ืงืจื•ื‘ื™ื ืœื”ืคืœื™ื ืœืกืคื™ื ื” ืœืžืงื”ืœื” ืžืกื•ื ื›ืจื ืช ืฉืœ ' ื•ื•ืื• 'ื• ืžืฆืœืžื” ื ืœื”ื‘ืช ืœื—ื™ืฆื”. ืื ื—ื ื• ืงื•ืคืฆื™ื ืขืœ ื’ืœื’ืœ ื”ืžื–ืœื•ืช ืœืฉื™ื˜ ื‘ืžืคืจืฅ, ื ืกื—ืคื™ื ืขืœ ืคื ื™ ื—ื•ืชืžื•ืช ืคืจื•ื•ื” ืžืฆืžืจืจื•ืช ืขืœ ืงืจื—ื•ื ื™ื, ืžืชืขืœืžื™ื ืžื ื•ื›ื—ื•ืชื ื•, ื•ื—ื•ืชืžื•ืช ื ืžืจื™ื ืคืชื•ื—ื•ืช ืœืจื•ื•ื—ื” - ื˜ื•ืจืคื™ื ื›ื‘ื“ื™ื ืฉืžืฉืงืœื ืขื“ 300 ืง"ื’ ื•ืื•ื”ื‘ื™ื ืœื—ื˜ื•ืฃ ืคื™ื ื’ื•ื•ื™ื ื™ื.

ื›ืœ ื–ื” ื”ื•ื ืจืง ื”ืงื“ืžื” ืœืžืขืจื›ื” ื”ืžืจื›ื–ื™ืช ื‘ืื•ืชื• ืื—ืจ ืฆื”ืจื™ื™ื ื‘ืื™ ืงื•ื‘ืจื•ื™ืœ, ื‘ื™ืชื• ืฉืœ ืžื•ืฉื‘ื” ืฉืœ ื› -15,000 ืคื™ื ื’ื•ื•ื™ื ื™ื ื’'ื ื˜ื• - ืื—ื“ ื”ื’ื“ื•ืœื™ื ืฉืœ ืื ื˜ืืจืงื˜ื™ืงื”. ืจืง ืื– ืื ื™ ื™ื•ื“ืข ืฉื”ื’ืขืชื™ ื‘ืืžืช ืœืื ื˜ืืจืงื˜ื™ืงื”. ื’ 'ืื ื˜ื•ืก ื“ื•ื”ืจืช ื‘ืžื”ื™ืจื•ืช ืžื“ื”ื™ืžื” ืœืฆื“ ื’ืœื’ืœ ื”ืžื–ืœื•ืช ืฉืœื ื•. ืืžื ื ืœื ื—ื™ื ื ื™ ื›ืžืขื˜ ืขืœ ื”ืงืจืงืข, ื”ื ื”ืจื‘ื” ื™ื•ืชืจ ืงื•ืžื™ - ื”ืœื™ืฆื ื™ื ืฉืœ ื”ืขื•ืœื ื”ืคื™ื ื’ื•ื•ื™ืŸ, ืฆื•ืคืจื™ื ื›ืžื• ืงืจื ื™ื™ื ื”ืžืคืœื’ื” ื• ืžื–ื—ืœืช ืจืืฉ ืžื•ืจื“ ื‘ืžื“ืจื•ื ื•ืช ื”ืงืจื—. ื”ื ื’ื ืกืงืจื ื™ื ื‘ืื•ืคืŸ ื˜ื‘ืขื™. ืื ื™ ืฉื•ืžืจ ืžืจื—ืง ืฉืœ ื›ื‘ื•ื“, ืื‘ืœ ืื—ื“ ื ื™ื’ืฉ ืœื‘ื“ื•ืง ืื•ืชื™, ืžื ืงืจ ืืช ืžื›ื ืกื™ ื”ื’ื•ืžื™ ืฉืœื™ ื•ืžืฉืš ื‘ืžื›ื ืกื™ื™ื. ืจื•ื‘ ื”ื’'ื ื˜ื• ื”ื ื”ืื ื™ ื”ืจื’ื™ืœื™ื, ื”ื ื•ืฆืฆื™ื, ื”ืจื’ื™ืœื™ื, ืื‘ืœ ืงื•ืžืฅ ืžื”ื ื™ืฉ ืœื”ื ื™ื•ื ืฉื™ืขืจ ืจืข, ื”ื“ื•ืžื” ืœื›ืจื™ื•ืช ืžืชืคื•ืฆืฆื•ืช ื›ืฉื”ื ืขื•ื‘ืจื™ื ืืช ื”ื ื‘ืœื•ืช ื”ืงื˜ืกื˜ืจื•ืคื” ื”ืฉื ืชื™ืช ืฉืœื”ื.

ืžืฆื‘ ื”ืจื•ื— ืขืœ ื”ืืงื“ืžื™ื” ื™ื•ืคื” ื”ื•ื ืงืœื™ืœ ื›ืžื• ืฉื—ืจ ื•ืจื•ื“ ืžืจื™ื ื•ื™ืœื•ืŸ ื‘ื™ื•ื ืื—ืจ ืžืกื ื•ื•ืจ - ืื ื—ื ื• ืžื‘ื•ืจืš ืœื ืจืง ืขื ืžื–ื’ ื”ืื•ื•ื™ืจ ื”ื˜ื•ื‘ ื‘ื™ื•ืชืจ ื”ืขื•ื ื” ืขื“ ื›ื”, ืืœื ื’ื ืืช ื”ื–ื›ื•ืช ืœื‘ืงืจ ื‘ืชื—ื ืช ืคืืœืžืจ (pal.lternet.edu ) ืขืœ ืื ื‘ืจืก ืื™ื™ืœื ื“, ื”ืงื˜ืŸ ืžื‘ื™ืŸ ืฉืœื•ืฉ ืชื—ื ื•ืช ื”ืžื—ืงืจ ื‘ืื ื˜ืืจืงื˜ื™ืงื” ืฉืœ ืืจืฆื•ืช ื”ื‘ืจื™ืช. ื›ืืŸ ื”ืžื“ืขื ื™ื ืœื•ืžื“ื™ื ืืช ื›ืœ ื”ื”ื™ื‘ื˜ื™ื ืฉืœ ื”ืžืขืจื›ืช ื”ืืงื•ืœื•ื’ื™ืช ื”ื™ืžื™ืช, ืžืชื•ืš ื‘ืชื™ ื’ื™ื“ื•ืœ ืฉืœ ืงืจื— ืœืงืจื— ื•ืขื“ ืืชืจื™ ืงื™ื ื•ืŸ. ื‘ืจืžื” ื ืžื•ื›ื” ื™ื•ืชืจ ื’ื‘ื”ื™ื, ืชื—ื ืช ืคืืœืžืจ ื”ื™ื ื’ื ืฉื ืืชื” ื™ื›ื•ืœ ืœืงื‘ืœ ืืช ื”ื“ืจื›ื•ืŸ ืฉืœืš ื—ื•ืชืžืช ื•ืœืื›ื•ืœ ืืช ื”ื—ื•ืžื•ืช ื”ื˜ื•ื‘ื•ืช ื‘ื™ื•ืชืจ ื‘ืฆื“ ื”ื–ื” ืฉืœ ื“ืจื•ื ืืžืจื™ืงื”.

ื”ื˜ื‘ืข ืขื•ืœื” ืขืœ ืื•ืชื• ืื—ืจ ืฆื”ืจื™ื™ื, ื‘ืขื•ื“ ื”ืกืคื™ื ื” ืฉืœื ื• ื ื“ื—ืงืช ื“ืจืš ืขืจื•ืฅ ืœืžื™ืจ ื”ืฆืจ, ื”ื—ื“ ืฆื“ื“ื™, ื”ืžื›ื•ื ื” "ืงื•ื“ืืง ื’ืืค". ื–ื”ื• ืžืงื•ื ื™ืคื” ืœื”ืคืœื™ื, ืขื ื”ืจื™ื ื“ืžื•ื™ื™ ื›ื ื•ืคื™ื™ืช ืžื™ื ืžืขืœ ืžื™ื ืžื–ื›ื•ื›ื™ืช.ืขืœ ื”ืกื™ืคื•ืŸ, ื›ืฉืื ื—ื ื• ืžืฉื—ืงื™ื ื ืงื•ื“ื”-ืคื™ื ื’ื•ื•ื™ืŸ ื•ื—ืชื™ืžืช-ื—ื•ืชื ื‘ืคืขื ื”ืžื™-ื™ื•ื“ืข-ืžื”, ืื ื™ ืžื“ื‘ืจืช ืขื ื ื•ืกืขืช-ืงื•ื˜ื‘ ืžื ื•ืกื” ืฉืื•ืžืจืช ืœื™ ืฉื”ื™ื ื”ื’ื™ืขื” ืœืจืืฉื•ื ื” ืœืื ื˜ืืจืงื˜ื™ืงื” ืœื—ื™ื•ืช ื”ื‘ืจ ื•ืขื›ืฉื™ื• ื—ื•ื–ืจืช ืœืงืจื—. ืื ื™ ืœื ื™ื›ื•ืœ ืœื“ืžื™ื™ืŸ ืœืžื” ืขื“ ืฉืื ื—ื ื• ืœื•ืงื—ื™ื ื’ืœื’ืœ ื”ืžื–ืœื•ืช ืฉืœ "ื‘ื™ืช ื”ืงื‘ืจื•ืช ืื™ืกื‘ืจื’" ืกื‘ื™ื‘ ืื™ ืคืœื ื• ื‘ืื•ืชื• ืื—ืจ ื”ืฆื”ืจื™ื™ื.

ื›ืคื™ ืฉืžืฆื™ื™ืŸ ืฉื, ื‘ื™ืช ื”ืงื‘ืจื•ืช ื”ื•ื ื”ืžืงื•ื ืฉื‘ื• ืงืจื—ื•ื ื™ื ื™ืฉ ืœืจื•ืฅ ืžืกื‘ื™ื‘ ื•ื”ื ืœืื˜ ื ืžืก. ื•ืื™ื–ื” ืงืจื—ื•ื ื™ื ื”ื - ื›ืžื” ืžื”ื ื‘ื™ืจื™ื•ืช ืงื˜ื ื•ืช ื•ืžื’ื“ืœื™ื, ืื—ืจื™ื ื’ื“ื•ืœื™ื ื›ืžื• ื˜ื™ืจื•ืช ืื• ืฆืฆื™ื ื›ืžื• ืคื˜ืจื™ื•ืช ืขื ืงื™ื•ืช. ืื ื™ ื™ื›ื•ืœ ืจืง ืœื”ื‘ื—ื™ืŸ ื‘ืงื™ืืงื™ื ื”ื ืขื™ื ื“ืจืš ื”ืงืจื— ื”ื—ืฆื•ื ื™ ื‘ืžืจื—ืง. "ื—ืชื™ืžืช ื ืžืจ ื ืชื ื” ืคืขื ืงื™ืืง ืœื—ื™ื‘ื•ืง ื“ื•ื‘ื™ ื•ื”ืœื›ืชื™ ืœื˜ื™ื•ืœ, "ืื•ืžืจ ื”ืžื“ืจื™ืš ื”ื˜ื‘ืขื™ ืฉืœื ื• ื“ืจืง ืงื™ื•ืกื˜ื™ื”, ื›ืฉืื ื—ื ื• ื—ื•ื–ืจื™ื ืืœ ื”ืกืคื™ื ื”, ื“ื•ืขื›ื™ื ื”ื™ื•ื ืืœ ื‘ื™ืŸ ื”ืขืจื‘ื™ื™ื.

ื ื—ื™ืชื” ื™ื‘ืฉืชื™ืช

ื™ืฉ ืจื’ืขื™ื ืฉืืชื” ืžื—ื›ื” ืœื›ืœ ื”ื—ื™ื™ื ื• ื“ื•ืจืš ืจื’ืœ ืขืœ โ€‹โ€‹ื™ื‘ืฉืช ืื ื˜ืืจืงื˜ื™ืงื” ื”ื™ื ืฉื ืœืžืขืœื”. ื”ื™ืขื“ ืฉืœื ื• ื”ื•ื ื ืžืœ ื ืงื• ื•ืฉื•ื‘ ืื ื—ื ื• ื›ื‘ืจ ืฆื™ื™ืจ ืืก ื›ืฉืžื“ื•ื‘ืจ ื‘ืžื–ื’ ื”ืื•ื•ื™ืจ. ื›ื›ืœ ืฉืžื–ืœื•ืช ื”ืžื–ืœื•ืช ืฉืœื ื•, ื”ืฉืžืฉ ื”ืจืืฉื•ื ื” ืžืชื—ื™ืœื” ืœื–ื—ื•ืœ ื‘ืžืขืœื” ื”ื”ืจ ื•ืคื ื™ื”ื ืฉืœ ืขื’ืœื•ืช ืงืจื—ื•ื ื™ื ืขื ื‘ื•ื ืขื ืงื™, ื•ืื—ืจื™ื• ื’ืœ ืฉืฉื•ืœื— ืืช ื”ื’'ื ื•ืกื™ื ื”ืžืชื’ื•ืจืจื™ื ื‘ื—ื•ืฃ ื”ืžื•ืฉืœื’, ื‘ื”ืžื•ืœื” ืฉืœ ื ื•ืฆื•ืช. ื”ื›ื•ืœ ื ืจืื” ื˜ื‘ื•ืข ื‘ื“ื•ืžื™ื™ื” ื”ืงืคื•ืื” ืฉืœ ื”ื‘ื•ืงืจ, ื›ืฉืื ื• ืคื•ืกืขื™ื ื‘ืคื™ื ื’ื•ื•ื™ื ื™ื ืฉื—ืœืคื• ืขืœ ืคื ื™ ื”ืงืจื— ื•ืขืœื™ื ื• ืขืœ ืขืœื™ื™ื” ืฉืคื•ืชื—ืช ืืช ื”ื ื•ืฃ ืฉืœ ืžืคืจืฅ ื”ืคืจืกื”.

ื‘ื“ื™ื•ืง ื›ืฉื ืจืื” ืฉืื ื˜ืืจืงื˜ื™ืงื” ืœื ื™ื›ื•ืœื” ืœืงื‘ืœ ืฉื•ื ื“ื‘ืจ ื ื—ืžื“ ื™ื•ืชืจ, ืื ื—ื ื• ืžื’ื™ืขื™ื ืœืžืคืจืฅ ื•ื™ืœื”ืœื, ืื• ืœื•ื•ื™ืœื”ืœืžื™ื ื” ืœืืœื” ืฉื‘ืžื’ื•ื•ืŸ ืกื™ื‘ื•ืช ืฉืžืชื‘ื”ืจื•ืช ื‘ืžื”ื™ืจื•ืช. "ื•ื™ืœื”ืœืžื™ื ื” ื”ื™ื ื”ืžืงื•ื ื”ื™ืคื” ื‘ื™ื•ืชืจ ืขืœื™ ืื“ืžื•ืช", ืื•ืžืจ ืืจื™. ื•ื‘ืฆื“ืง. ื”ืกื‘ื™ื‘ื” ื”ื™ื ื›ื” ื ืฉื’ื‘ืช, ืขื“ ืฉื”ื™ื ืฉื•ืื‘ืช ื”ืชื ืฉืคื•ื™ื•ืช ื‘ืœืชื™ ื ืœืื™ื•ืช ืฉืœ ืคืœื™ืื” - ืžื™ื ืฉืœื•ื•ื™ื ืœื—ืœื•ื˜ื™ืŸ ืžื—ื–ื™ืงื™ื ืžืจืื” ืœื”ืจื™ื ืขื˜ื•ืจื™ ืฉืœื’ ื”ืžื•ืฉืœื’ื™ื ืžืขืœ ื”ืžืคืจืฅ, ืงืจื—ื•ื ื™ื ื ืฉืคื›ื™ื ืขืœ ืฆื“ื ื›ืžื• ืžืจื ื’ ืžืจื•ืกืง. ื•ืื– ื”ืฉืชื™ืงื” ื ืฉื‘ืจืช ื‘ื’ืจื’ื•ืจ ืžื”ื“ื”ื“ ืฉื ืฉืžืข ื›ืžื• ืืœืฃ ืฉื ื•ืจืงืœื™ื ืžืชื‘ื”ืจื™ื ื‘ื‘ืช ืื—ืช. ื–ื” ื’ื™ื‘ืŸ ื•ื”ื•ื ื”ื‘ื™ื ืื™ืชื• ื›ืžื” ื—ื‘ืจื™ื. ืคืชืื•ื, ืื ื—ื ื• ืžืงืจื•ื‘ ื• ืื™ืฉื™ ืขื ื”ืขื ืงื™ื ื”ืืœื” ืฉืœ ื”ืขืžื•ืง, ืืฉืจ ื ืจืื” ืœืฉื™ื ื‘ื”ืฆื’ื” ืœื˜ื•ื‘ืชื ื•. ืื ื—ื ื• ืžืชื‘ื•ื ื ื™ื ื‘ื”ื ื›ืฉื”ื ืžืกื•ื—ืจืจื™ื, ืžืขื ื™ืงื™ื ืœื ื• ื”ื‘ื–ืง ืฉืœ ื”ืคืœื•ืงื™ื ืฉืœื”ื - ื“ืคื•ืกื™ ื”ื–ื ื‘ ื”ืžืฉืžืฉื™ื ืœื–ื™ื”ื•ื™ ืื•ืชื ื›ืžื• ื˜ื‘ื™ืขื•ืช ืืฆื‘ืขื•ืช. ื—ืœืงื ื ื—ื™ื ื•ื ืื ืงื™ื ืงืจื•ื‘ ืœืคื ื™ ื”ืฉื˜ื—, ืื—ืจื™ื ื”ื ื”ื–ื ื” ื‘ื•ืขื” ื ื˜ื•, ื—ื’ื™ื ืžืชื—ืช ืœืžื™ื ื‘ื•ืขื•ืช ื ื•ืฉื‘ืช ืœื›ืคื•ืช ื˜ืจืฃ ืฉืœื”ื ืงืจื•ื‘ ื™ื•ืชืจ ืืœ ืคื ื™ ื”ืฉื˜ื—. "ืชืฉืข, "ืžื™ืฉื”ื• ื‘ื•ื›ื”, ื•ื›ื•ืœื ื• ืคื•ื ื™ื ืœืจืื•ืช ืืช ื”ืžื›ื•ืช ืžืชื ืคื—ื•ืช ื›ืžื• ืžื–ืจืงื•ืช ืื“ื™ืจื•ืช, ืžื•ืืจื•ืช ื‘ืฉืžืฉ ืื—ืจ ื”ืฆื”ืจื™ื™ื ื”ืžืื•ื—ืจืช.

ืžื” ื‘ืืžืช ืกืœืขื™ื ืกื™ืจื” ืฉืœ ืืจื™, ืœืขื•ืžืช ื–ืืช, ื”ื•ื ื”ืžื“ืข ื ืขืฉื” ื‘ืžืคืจืฅ ื•ื™ืœื”ืœืžื™ื ื”. "ืจืื™ื ื• ื”ื™ื•ื ื› -120 ื’ื™ื™ืžืจื™ื ื›ืืŸ ืœื‘ื“", ื”ื•ื ืื•ืžืจ. "ื•ื™ืœื”ืœืžื™ื ื” ืžื™ื•ื—ื“ืช, ืžืคื ื™ ืฉื”ื™ื ืžื•ืฉื›ืช ื”ืจื‘ื” ืงืจื™ืœ ื’ื ื‘ืงื™ืฅ ื•ื’ื ื‘ื—ื•ืจืฃ, ื›ืœ ื›ืš ื”ืจื‘ื” ื˜ื•ืจืคื™ื ืฉืœ ืงืจื™ืœ ื‘ืื™ื ืœื›ืืŸ ื›ื“ื™ ืœื”ืื›ื™ืœ. ื’ืจื’ืจื™ื ืœื•ื•ื™ื™ืชื ื™ื, ื—ื•ืชืžื•ืช crabeater, ื—ื•ืชืžื•ืช ืคืจื•ื•ื” ื• ืœื•ื•ื™ื™ืชื ื™ื ืžื™ื ืง ื›ืœ ืœื”ืฉืชืžืฉ ื‘ืžืคืจืฅ ื‘ื–ืžื ื™ื ืฉื•ื ื™ื ืฉืœ ื”ืฉื ื” ื‘ืžืกืคืจื™ื ื’ื‘ื•ื”ื™ื ืœื”ืคืœื™ื. ื–ื” ืžืงืœื˜ ืขื‘ื•ืจ ื—ื™ื•ืช ื”ื‘ืจ ืฉืื ื• ืžื’ื™ืขื™ื ืœืื ื˜ืืจืงื˜ื™ืงื” ื›ื“ื™ ืœืจืื•ืช. ืื ื• ืžืฉืชืžืฉื™ื ื‘- Wilhelmina Bay ืฉื ื” ืื—ืจ ืฉื ื” ื›ื“ื™ ืœืฉื™ื ืชื’ื™ื ืขืœ ืœื•ื•ื™ื™ืชื ื™ื, ื›ื“ื™ ืœืจืื•ืช ืื™ืš ื”ื ืžืื›ื™ืœื™ื, ื‘ืื™ื–ื• ืฉืขื” ื‘ื™ื•ื ื•ื‘ืื™ื–ื• ืชื“ื™ืจื•ืช, ื•ื–ื” ื ื•ืชืŸ ืœื ื• ืื™ื ื“ื™ืงืฆื™ื” ื—ื–ืงื” ืžืื•ื“ ืฉืœ ื›ืžื” ื—ืฉื•ื‘ ื”ืื–ื•ืจ ื”ื–ื” ืœื‘ืขืœื™ ื”ื—ื™ื™ื. ื”ืชื’ื™ื ื”ื ืžืกื•ื“ืจื™ื ื‘ืืžืช, ื”ื ืœืฆืจืฃ ืืช ืœื•ื•ื™ื™ืชืŸ ืขื ื›ื•ืก ื™ื ื™ืงื”, ืœื”ื™ืฉืืจ ืขืœ 24 ืฉืขื•ืช, ื•ื™ืฉ ืœื”ื ืืช ืื•ืชื• ืกื•ื’ ืฉืœ ื—ื™ื™ืฉื ื™ื ื™ืฉ ืœืš ื˜ืœืคื•ืŸ ื—ื›ื ืœืชืช ืืช ื”ืžื’ืจืฉ, ืืช ืจื•ืœ ื•ืืช ื”ื›ื•ืชืจืช ืฉืœ ื”ืœื•ื•ื™ื™ืชืŸ ื‘ืฉืœื•ืฉ ืžืžื“ื™ื.'

ืื ื—ื ื• ื ื•ืกืขื™ื ื‘ืื•ืชื• ืื—ืจ ืฆื”ืจื™ื™ื ืœ Cierva ืงื•ื‘, ืฉื ืชืฆื•ืจื•ืช ืงืจื— ืœื”ืžืขื™ื˜ ืขื ืงื ื” ื”ืžื™ื“ื” ืฉืœื”ื ื•ืฆื•ืจื•ืช. ื’ืœื’ืœ ื”ืžื–ืœื•ืช ื—ื•ืœืฃ ืขืœ ืคื ื™ื ื• ืืช ื”ื‘ืจื’ืก ื‘ืขื‘ืจ, ื‘ื’ื•ื“ืœ ืฉืœ ื‘ืชื™ ืžืœื•ืŸ, ืงืฉืชื•ืชื™ื”ื ื ื•ืฆืฆื•ืช ื‘ื›ื—ื•ืœ ื›ื”ื”, ื•ืคืจื•ื•ืช, ื ืžืจื™ื ื•ื—ื•ืชืžื™ ื•ื•ื“ืœ ืžืชื ื•ืกืกื™ื ืขืœ ื”ืงืจื—. ืฉืงื™ืขื” ืœื•ื”ื˜ืช ื›ืฉืื ื—ื ื• ื—ื•ื–ืจื™ื ืœืกืคื™ื ื” ื”ื•ื ื”ื“ื•ื‘ื“ื‘ืŸ ืขืœ ื”ืขื•ื’ื”.

ื•ื•ืืœืจืก ื‘ื™ื™ & ื—ืฆื™ ื”ืื™ ื™ืจื—

ื™ืฉ ื“ื’ืฉ ื—ื–ืง ืขืœ ืฉื™ืžื•ืจ ื•ืกื‘ื™ื‘ืชื™ ืžืฉืœื—ืช ืืงืจื˜ื™ืช ืœืื ื˜ืืจืงื˜ื™ืงื” ื”ื™ื•ื, ื‘ืžื˜ืจื” ืœื™ืฆื•ืจ ืฉื’ืจื™ืจื™ ื—ื™ื•ืช ื‘ืจ ื•ืœื ืœื”ืฉืื™ืจ ืžืื—ื•ืจ ื“ื‘ืจ ืžืœื‘ื“ ืขืงื‘ื•ืช, ืื‘ืœ ื–ื” ืœื ืชืžื™ื“ ื”ื™ื” ื›ื›ื”. ืฉื™ื˜ ืœืชื•ืš ืงืœื“ืจื” ืฉืœ ื”ืจ ื’ืขืฉ ืคืขื™ืœ, ืื ื—ื ื• ื”ืœื•ื— ื’ืœื’ืœ ื”ืžื–ืœื•ืช ื›ื“ื™ ืœื—ืฆื•ืช ืืช ื”ื—ื•ืฃ ื”ืืคืจืคืจ ืฉืœ ืžืคืจืฅ Whalers ืขืœ ื”ืื™ ื“ื”ื™ื˜ื™ื•ืŸ. ืฆื™ื“ ืœื•ื•ื™ื™ืชื ื™ื ืžืกื—ืจื™ ื”ืฉืžื™ื“ ืืช ืื•ื›ืœื•ืกื™ื™ืช ื”ืœื•ื•ื™ื™ืชืŸ ื•ืืช ืฉืจื™ื“ื™ ืžื” ืฉื”ื™ื” ืชื—ื ืช ืœื•ื•ื™ื™ืชื ื™ื ืž -1906 ืขื“ 1930 ื ื”ืจืกื• ืขืœ ื™ื“ื™ ื”ื–ืžืŸ ื•ื”ืืœืžื ื˜ื™ื. ืขื›ืฉื™ื• ื”ื—ื•ืฃ ื›ื‘ืจ ื”ืฉืชืœื˜ื• ืขืœ ื™ื“ื™ ื—ื•ืชืžื•ืช ืคืจื•ื•ื”, ืืฉืจ ื›ื›ืจ ืกื‘ื™ื‘ ื˜ื ืงื™ื ื“ืœืง ื—ืœื•ื“, ืœื”ื™ืœื—ื ื‘ืžื™ื ืœื ื‘ื•ื— ืœืจื“ื•ืฃ ื›ืœ ืžื™ ืฆืขื“ื™ื ืจื’ืœ ืงืจื•ื‘ ืžื“ื™. ื‘ืคืจืฅ ืฉืœ ื”ื˜ื™ืจื•ืฃ ื”ืื—ืจื•ืŸ ืฉืœ ื™ื•ื ื”ืื ื˜ืจืงื˜ื™ืงื”, ืื ื—ื ื• ืžืชืคืฉื˜ื™ื ืœื‘ื’ื“ื™ ื™ื ืœืฆืœื™ืœื™ ื”ืงื•ื˜ื‘, ืฉื”ื•ื ื™ื•ืชืจ ืžืงืฃ ื•ืžืชื™ื– ืžืฉื—ื™ื™ื” ื‘ืžื™ื ื”ืงืจื™ื.

ื”ืื™ ืฉืœ ื—ืฆื™ ื™ืจื— ื”ื•ื ื”ืชื—ื ื” ื”ืื—ืจื•ื ื” ืฉืœื ื• ื•ืื ื—ื ื• ืžืงื‘ืœื™ื ืืช ืคื ื™ื ื• ืขืœ ื™ื“ื™ ืžื•ืฉื‘ื” ื’ื“ื•ืœื” ืฉืœ ืคื™ื ื’ื•ื•ื™ื ื™ื ืฉืœ ืกื ื˜ืจ, ืžืชื ื“ื ื“ื™ื ื•ืžื˜ื™ื™ืœื™ื ืขืœ ืคื ื™ ื—ืœื•ืงื™ ื”ืื‘ืŸ, ื•ื ื”ื ื™ื ืžื”ื ื•ืฃ ืœืžืขืœื” - ื›ืžื• ืฉืื ื—ื ื• - ืžื•ืงืคื™ื ืฆืจื™ื—ื™ื ืกืœืขื™ื™ื ื•ืฆืจื™ื—ื™ื. ืื ื™ ืžืขื™ืฃ ืžื‘ื˜ ืื—ืจื•ืŸ ื‘ืื ื˜ืืจืงื˜ื™ืงื”, ืื‘ื•ื“ ื‘ืจื’ืข. ื”ื ื•ืฃ ื›ืœ ื›ืš ื˜ื”ื•ืจ ื•ื”ืคื™ื ื’ื•ื•ื™ื ื™ื ืฉืงื•ืขื™ื ืœื’ืžืจื™ ื‘ืขืกืง ืฉืœื”ื. ื–ื”ื• ื”ื˜ื‘ืข ื‘ืฆื•ืจืชื• ื”ื˜ื”ื•ืจื” ื‘ื™ื•ืชืจ, ืฉื‘ื” ื‘ืขืœื™ ื”ื—ื™ื™ื ืฉื•ืœื˜ื™ื ื•ืื ื—ื ื• ืคืฉื•ื˜ ืขื•ื‘ืจื™ื ื“ืจื›ื. ื”ื“ืจื™ื™ืง ืžืžืชื™ืŸ ื•ื—ื–ืจืชื ื• ืœืฆื™ื•ื•ื™ืœื™ื–ืฆื™ื”. ืื‘ืœ ื›ื•ืœื ื• ืžืกื›ื™ืžื™ื ืฉืœืขื•ืœื ืœื ื ื”ื™ื” ืฉื•ื‘ ืื•ืชื• ื“ื‘ืจ - ืื ื˜ืืจืงื˜ื™ืงื” ืžืฉื ื” ืื•ืชืš ื•ื ืฉืืจ ืื™ืชืš ืœื ืฆื—.

ืชื’ืจื•ื ืœื–ื” ืœืงืจื•ืช

ืžื•ืžื—ื™ ืฉื™ื˜ ืื ื˜ืืจืงื˜ื™ืงื” ื™ื›ื•ืœื™ื ืœืกื™ื™ืข ืœื ื•ืกืขื™ื ืœื‘ื—ื•ืจ ืžืกืœื•ืœื™ื ื•ื‘ืงืชื•ืช, ื•ืจื‘ื™ื ื™ื›ื•ืœื™ื ื’ื ืœื”ื–ืžื™ืŸ ื˜ื™ืกื•ืช ื•ืœืขืฉื•ืช ื”ืกื“ืจื™ ืชื—ื‘ื•ืจื” ื‘ืืจื’ื ื˜ื™ื ื”. ืจื•ื‘ ืื ื˜ืืจืงื˜ื™ืงื” ื”ืคืœื’ื•ืช ืœืขื–ื•ื‘ ืื•ืฉื•ืื™ื” ื‘ืืจื’ื ื˜ื™ื ื”.(ื ืžืœ ืชืขื•ืคื” ืื•ืฉื•ืื™ื” ื”ื‘ื™ื ืœืื•ืžื™) (ืฉื“ื” ืชืขื•ืคื” (Aeropuertoushuaia.com) ื‘ื ื‘ืขืช, ืขื•ื ืช ื”ืฉื™ื™ื˜ ืฉืœ ืื ื˜ืืจืงื˜ื™ืงื” ื”ื™ื ืžื ื•ื‘ืžื‘ืจ ืขื“ ืžืจืฅ (ืงื™ืฅ ืืกื˜ืจืœื™ ื•ืกืชื™ื• ืžื•ืงื“ื). ืžืืจืก ื”ื•ื ื”ื–ืžืŸ ืœืจืื•ืช ืืช ื™ื•ื ืงื™ื ื™ืžื™ื™ื.

ืงืจื™ ื›ืจื™ืกื˜ื™ืื ื™ ื ืกืข ืœืื ื˜ืืจืงื˜ื™ืงื” ืขื ืชืžื™ื›ื” ืฉืœ ืžืฉืœื—ืช ืื—ืช ื”ืื•ืงื™ื™ื ื•ืก โ€‹โ€‹(oneoceanexpeditions.com) ื• ืกื•ื•ืืจื˜ ืื ื˜ืืจืงื˜ื™ืงื” (swoop-antarctica.com). Lonely Planet ืชื•ืจืžื™ื ืœื ืžืงื‘ืœื™ื freebies ืชืžื•ืจืช ื›ื™ืกื•ื™ ื—ื™ื•ื‘ื™.

ืฉืชืฃ:

ื“ืคื™ื ื“ื•ืžื™ื

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