ืžืฆื™ืืช ื”ืจื•ื— ื”ื—ืœื•ืฆื™ืช ืฉืœ ืกื™ืื˜ืœ

ืžืฆื™ืืช ื”ืจื•ื— ื”ื—ืœื•ืฆื™ืช ืฉืœ ืกื™ืื˜ืœ

ืœืžืจื•ืช ืฉื–ื” ื‘ื ื•ื™ ืขืœ ืฉื‘ืข ื’ื‘ืขื•ืช ื›ืžื• ืจื•ืžื, ืกื™ืื˜ืœ ื”ื™ื ืขื™ืจ ืžืคื•ืจืกืžืช ื”ืžื•ื“ืจื ื™ื•ืช ืฉืœื”. ืžื” ื”ื™ื ื—ืกืจื” ื—ื•ืจื‘ื•ืช ืจื•ืžื ื˜ื™ื•ืช, ื–ื” ืžืคืฆื” ืขืœ ื˜ื›ื ื•ืœื•ื’ื™ื” ื—ื“ืฉื ื™ืช ื ื˜ื™ื™ื” ื’ืื“ื’ 'ื˜ ื•ื—ื“ืฉื ื•ืช. ืขื ืงื™ื•ืช ื’ืœื•ื‘ืœื™ื•ืช, ืžื™ืงืจื•ืกื•ืคื˜, ืกื˜ืืจื‘ืงืก, ื‘ื•ืื™ื ื’ ื•ืืžื–ื•ืŸ ืžืงื•ืจืŸ ื›ืืŸ, ื™ื—ื“ ืขื ืžื’ืžื•ืช ื›ืžื• ื ื ื• ืžื‘ืฉืœ, ื’ืจืื ื’ ', ื‘ืชื™ ืงืคื” ืฉืœ ื’ืœ ืฉืœื™ืฉื™ ื•ืจืืค ืžื•ื“ืข ืžื‘ื—ื™ื ื” ื—ื‘ืจืชื™ืช. ืื‘ืœ, ืžืื—ื•ืจื™ ื›ืœ ืกื™ืคื•ืจ ื”ืฆืœื—ื” ื‘ืกื™ืื˜ืœ ื˜ืžื•ื ื” ืจื•ื— ื”ืžื™ื™ืกื“ื™ื ื”ื—ืœื•ืฆื™ื™ื ืฉืœ ื”ืขื™ืจ. ื›ื“ื™ ืœื”ืขืจื™ืš ืืช ื”ืžื•ื“ืจื ื™ื•ืช ืฉืœื”, ืืชื” ืฆืจื™ืš ืงื•ื“ื ื›ืœ ืœื”ื‘ื™ืŸ ืืช ื”ืขื‘ืจ ืฉืœื”, ืกื™ืคื•ืจ ืžืœื ืคืขื•ืœื” ืฉืœ ื‘ื•ื, ื—ื–ื”, ืืฉ, ืฉื˜ื•ืช ื•ื”ืžืฆืื” ืชืงื•ืคืชื™ืช.

ืฉื•ืจืฉื™ื ืื™ื ื“ื™ืื ื™ื

ืกื™ืื˜ืœ ืฉืœ ื™ืžื™ื ื• ื™ื•ืฉื‘ ืขืœ ืื“ืžืช ืคืขื, ืืฉืจ ืžื™ื•ืฉื‘ ืขืœ ื™ื“ื™ ืฉื‘ื˜ ื“ื•ืืžื™ืฉ ืฉืžื ื”ื™ื’ื• ื”ื ื›ื‘ื“, ืฆ'ื™ืฃ ืกืœืช ', ื”ืขื ื™ืง ืืช ืฉืžื• ืœืขื™ืจ. ื™ื™ืฉื•ื‘ื™ื ืงื˜ื ื™ื ืฉืœ ื“ื•ื™ืžื™ืฉ ื ืฉืืจื™ื ืงื˜ื ื™ื, ืื‘ืœ ืืชื” ื™ื›ื•ืœ ืœืงื‘ืœ ื˜ืขื ื’ืœื•ื™, ืื ื›ื™ ืงืฆืช ืชื™ื™ืจื•ืชื™, ืขืœ ืื™ืš ื”ื ื”ืชื’ื•ืจืจื• ื‘ื›ืคืจ ื˜ื™ืœื™ืงื•ื ืฉื‘ืžื˜ืจื” ื‘ ื‘ืœื™ื™ืง ืื™ื™ืœื ื“ (ืฉื ื ื•ืœื“ื” ืกืœืช 'ื‘ืฉื ืช 1786). ืืจื’ื•ื–ื™ ืงืจื•ื–ืก ืžืืจื’ื ืช ื—ื‘ื™ืœื•ืช ื”ื›ื•ืœืœื•ืช ืืช "ื”ื›ืคืจ" ื”ืžืฉื•ื—ื–ืจ ืžืื–ื•ืจ ื”ื—ื•ืฃ ืฉืœ ืกื™ืื˜ืœ. ื”ื˜ื™ื•ืœ ื›ื•ืœืœ ื ืกื™ืขื” ื‘ืกื™ืจื”, ืื•ืคื™ื ืกืœืžื•ืŸ, ืกื™ืคื•ืจ ืกื™ืคื•ืจื™ื ื•ืžื•ืคืขื™ ืžื—ื•ืœ ืฉืœ ืื ืฉื™ื ื—ื•ืฃ Salish.

ืื ืืชื ืžืขื“ื™ืคื™ื ืœื—ืงื•ืจ ืืช ื”ืชืจื‘ื•ืช ื”ืื™ื ื“ื™ืื ื™ืช ื”ืืžืจื™ืงืื™ืช ื‘ืœื‘ื“, ืคื ื• ืœืžื•ื–ื™ืื•ืŸ ื‘ืจืง ื‘ืื•ื ื™ื‘ืจืกื™ื˜ื” ืฉืœ โ€‹โ€‹ื•ื•ืฉื™ื ื’ื˜ื•ืŸ, ืืฉืจ ืื•ืกืฃ 'ืงื•ืœ ืคืกื™ืคื™ืง' ืžืงื˜ืœื’ ืืช ื”ื”ื™ืกื˜ื•ืจื™ื” ืฉืœ ื”ืฉื‘ื˜ื™ื ื”ืฆืคื•ืŸ-ืžืขืจื‘ื™ื™ื. ื›ืžื• ื›ืŸ ืœืขื™ื™ืŸ ื”ื ืฉื ื™ ืžืจื›ื–ื™ ื”ืชืจื‘ื•ืช ืฉืœ ื”ืื™ื ื“ื™ืื ื™ื ืฉืœ ืกื™ืื˜ืœ: Duwamish Longhouse ื•ืืช ืžืจื›ื– ื”ืชืจื‘ื•ืช ื‘ืžืขืจื‘ ืกื™ืื˜ืœ, ื•ืืช ื›ื•ื›ื‘ ื”ืฉื—ืจ ื›ื•ื›ื‘ ืชืจื‘ื•ืช ืคืืจืง ื’ื™ืœื•ื™. ืฉื ื™ื”ื ืžืืจื’ื ื™ื ืคืื•ื•ืจืื•ืกื™ื ืกื“ื™ืจื™ื ื•ืื™ืจื•ืขื™ื ืื—ืจื™ื.

ืžืชื ื—ืœื™ ื—ื•ืฃ

ืกื™ืื˜ืœ ื”ืžื•ื“ืจื ื™ืช ื ื•ืกื“ื” ื‘ื ื•ื‘ืžื‘ืจ 1851 ื‘ Alki ืคื•ื™ื ื˜ ืขืœ ื™ื“ื™ ืงื‘ื•ืฆื” ืฉืœ ื—ืœื•ืฆื™ื ืงืฉื” ื˜ืจื™ ืืช ืฉื‘ื™ืœ ืื•ืจื’ื•ืŸ. ืžื” ืฉื ืงืจื "ืžืคืœื’ืช ื“ื ื™" ืกื‘ืœื” ื—ื•ืจืฃ ืขืœื•ื‘ ื‘ื—ื•ืฃ ืกื—ื•ืฃ ืจื•ื— ืœืคื ื™ ืฉืขื‘ืจ ืขืœ ืคื ื™ ืืœื™ื•ื˜ ื‘ื™ื™ ืžื” ืขื›ืฉื™ื• ื‘ืžืจื›ื– ื”ืขื™ืจ. ืฉืจื™ื“ื™ื ืงื˜ื ื™ื ืฉืœ ื”ื™ื™ืฉื•ื‘ ื”ืžืงื•ืจื™ ืฉืœ ื”ืžืคืœื’ื”, ืื ื›ื™ ืื ื“ืจื˜ื” ื‘ืคืืจืง ื”ื—ื•ืฃ Alki ื‘ืžืขืจื‘ ืกื™ืื˜ืœ ืžืกืžืŸ ืืช ื”ื ืงื•ื“ื” ื”ื’ืกื” ืฉืœ ื”ื™ืจื™ื“ื” ืฉืœื”ื. ื‘ื™ืŸ condos ื”ื—ื•ืฃ ื”ืžื•ื“ืจื ื™, ืชื•ื›ืœื• ืœืžืฆื•ื ื’ื ื‘ื™ืช ืงื˜ืŸ ื‘ื›ื ื™ืกื” ืœืžื•ื–ื™ืื•ืŸ ืขื˜ื•ืฃ ื‘ื‘ื™ืช ื”ืงืจื•ืŸ ื”ื™ืฉืŸ ืฉื ื‘ื ื” ืžืŸ ื”ืืฉื•ื—ื™ื ื“ืื’ืœืก ื‘ืชื—ื™ืœืช 1900. ืขื ื“ืžื™ื•ืŸ ืฆืœื•ืœ ืืชื” ื™ื›ื•ืœ ืœื ืกื•ืช ืœื“ืžื™ื™ืŸ ืืช ื”ืžืชื ื—ืœื™ื ื”ืจืืฉื•ื ื™ื ื•ืืช ื”ืจืฆื•ืŸ ื”ืขื™ืงืฉ ืฉืœื”ื ืœื”ืชืžื™ื“ ื‘ื›ืœ ืžื—ื™ืจ.

ื”ื•ืœืš ืžืชื—ืช ืœืื“ืžื”

ื‘ืฉื ื•ืช ื”ืฉืžื•ื ื™ื ืฉืœ ื”ืžืื” ื”ืชืฉืข-ืขืฉืจื” ื”ื™ืชื” ืกื™ืื˜ืœ ื”ืชื ื—ืœื•ืช ืืจืขื™ืช ืฉืœ ื—ื–ื™ืชื•ืช ืฉืœ ื—ื ื•ื™ื•ืช ืขืฅ, ื‘ืชื™ ืขืฅ ื•ืžืคืขืœื™ ืขืฆื™ื, ื•ื”ื™ื ื”ืชื”ืœื›ื” ื‘ื—ื™ื™ ื”ืœื™ืœื” ื”ืคืจืื™ื ื•ื”ืžื•ื–ื ื—ื™ื ืฉืคื’ืขื• ื‘ืขืจื™ ื’ื‘ื•ืœ ืจื‘ื™ื ืฉืœ ื”ืชืงื•ืคื”. ื–ื” ืœื ื”ื™ื” ืฆืจื™ืš ืœืกื‘ื•ืœ. ื‘ืฉื ืช 1889, ืืฉ ืืจืกื™ืช ืฆืžืฆืžื” 80% ืžื”ื”ืชื ื—ืœื•ืช ื”ืžืชื”ื•ื•ื” ืœืืคืจ. ืกื™ืื˜ืœ ื›ื™ ื™ืฆื ืžื—ื“ืฉ ื ื‘ื ื” ืœื‘ื ื™ื ื—ืกื•ืŸ ื‘ืจืžื” ื’ื‘ื•ื”ื” 30ft ื’ื‘ื•ื” ื™ื•ืชืจ ืžืืฉืจ ื‘ืขื™ืจ ื”ืขืฅ ื”ืžืงื•ืจื™, ื›ื“ื™ ืœืžื ื•ืข ื”ืฆืคื”. ืžื” ืฉื ื•ืชืจ ืžื”ื”ืชื ื—ืœื•ืช ื˜ืจื•ื ื”ืืฉ ื ืงื‘ืจ ืžืชื—ืช ืœืคื ื™ ื”ืงืจืงืข ื‘ืจืฉืช ืฉืœ ืžืจืชืคื™ื ื•ืžืกืœื•ืœื™ื. ื”ืžื—ืชืจืช ืฉืœ ืกื™ืื˜ืœ ื”ืชื’ืœืชื” ืžื—ื“ืฉ ื‘ืฉื ื•ืช ื”ืฉื™ืฉื™ื ืขืœ ื™ื“ื™ ืื™ืฉ ืฉื™ืžื•ืจ ื‘ืฉื ื‘ื™ืœ ืกืคื™ื“ืœ, ืฉืกื™ื•ืจื™ื• ื”ืชืช-ืงืจืงืขื™ื™ื ื“ืจืš ื”ืฉืจื™ื“ื™ื ื”ืžืคื—ื™ื“ื™ื ื”ื™ื• ืžืฉื•ืขืฉืขื™ื ื‘ื”ื•ืžื•ืจ ื•ืขืฉื™ืจื™ื ื‘ืื ืงื“ื•ื˜ื•ืช ืžื“ื”ื™ืžื•ืช. ืืฃ ืขืœ ืคื™ ืฉืกืคื™ื“ืœ ื ืคื˜ืจ ื‘ืฉื ื•ืช ื” -80, ืกื™ืคื•ืจื• ืฉืœ ื”ืชื™ืื˜ืจื•ืŸ ื”ืžืžืœื›ืชื™ ืฉืœ ื‘ื™ืœ ืกืคื™ื“ืœ ื”ื•ื ืขื“ื™ื™ืŸ ืคื•ืคื•ืœืจื™ ืžืื•ื“ ื‘ืฉืœ ืฉื™ืœื•ื‘ื• ื”ื—ื›ื ืฉืœ ื”ื”ื™ืกื˜ื•ืจื™ื” ื•ืกื™ืคื•ืจืช.

ืชืจื‘ื•ืช ื ื•ืจื“ื™ืช

ืจื•ื‘ ื”ืฆืœื—ืชื” ื”ืžื•ืงื“ืžืช ืฉืœ ืกื™ืื˜ืœ ื ื—ื” ืขืœ ื›ืชืคื™ื” ื”ืจื—ื‘ื•ืช ืฉืœ ืงื”ื™ืœืชื” ื”ื ื•ืจื“ื™ืช ื”ื—ื–ืงื”, ื”ืžื•ืจื›ื‘ืช ืžืขื•ืœื™ ืกืงื ื“ื™ื ื‘ื™ื”, ืคื™ื ืœื ื“ ื•ืื™ืกืœื ื“, ื•ื”ืชืžืงื“ื” ื‘ืงื”ื™ืœืช ื”ื“ื™ื’ ืฉืœ ื‘ืืœืืจื“. ืœืžืจื•ืช ื”ื™ื•ืชื• ืžืฉื•ืœื‘ ื‘ืกื™ืื˜ืœ ื‘ -1907, ื‘ืืœืืจื“ ืฉืžืจ ืขืœ ื”ืจื•ื— ื”ื ื•ืจื“ื™ืช ืฉืœื• ื‘ื‘ืจื’ืŸ ืคืœื™ื™ืก ืคืืจืง (ื ืฉืžืจ ืขืœ ื™ื“ื™ ื—ืžืฉืช ื”ื“ื’ืœื™ื ื”ื ื•ืจื“ื™ื™ื) ื•ืžื•ื–ื™ืื•ืŸ ื”ืžื•ืจื“ื™ื ื”ื ื•ืจื“ื™, ื”ืžืคืจื˜ ืืช ื”ื”ื™ืกื˜ื•ืจื™ื” ื•ื”ืชืจื‘ื•ืช ืฉืœ ื”ื—ืœื•ืฆื™ื ื”ืื™ืจื•ืคืื™ื, ืขื ื“ื’ืฉ ืžื™ื•ื—ื“ ืขืœ ื“ื™ื’, ืืžื ื•ืช ื•ื˜ืงืกื˜ื™ืœ . ืื ืืชื” ื‘ืกื‘ื™ื‘ื•ืช ืื•ื’ื•ืกื˜, ืœื”ื‘ื™ื ืงืกื“ื” horned ืขื‘ื•ืจ ืคืกื˜ื™ื‘ืœ ื™ืžื™ ื•ื™ืงื™ื ื’ื™ื.

ืฉื›ื•ื ื” ื—ืœื•ืฆื™ืช

ื‘ื”ืชืื ืœืจื•ื— ื”ื—ืœื•ืฆื™ื ื”ืžืงื•ืจื™ื™ื, ื‘ื ื™ื™ืชื• ืžื—ื“ืฉ ืฉืœ ืกื™ืื˜ืœ ืœืื—ืจ ื”ืฉืจื™ืคื” ื”ื™ืชื” ืžื”ื™ืจื” ืขื“ ืžื”ืจื” ืจืง ื™ืžื™ื ืกืคื•ืจื™ื ืœืื—ืจ ืฉื”ืœื”ื‘ื•ืช ืฉื›ื›ื•. ื›ื“ื™ ืœืžื ื•ืข ืืกื•ืŸ ื ื•ืกืฃ, ื ื‘ื ื• ื”ื‘ื ื™ื™ื ื™ื ื”ื—ื“ืฉื™ื ื‘ืœื‘ื ื™ื ืื“ื•ืžื•ืช ื ืื” ื‘ืกื’ื ื•ืŸ ืคื™ื ืก-ื“ื”-ืกื™ื™ืงืœ ื™ื™ื—ื•ื“ื™ ื”ืžื›ื•ื ื” "ืจื•ืžื ืกืง ืจื™ืฆ'ืจื“ืกื•ื ื™", ืกื’ื ื•ืŸ ืฉื”ืชื—ื™ืœ ื‘ื›ืœ ืจื—ื‘ื™ ื”ื™ื‘ืฉืช ื‘ื‘ื•ืกื˜ื•ืŸ. ื“ื•ื’ืžืื•ืช ืงืœืืกื™ื•ืช ืœื–'ืื ืจ, ื”ืžืกื•ืžื ื•ืช ืขืœ ื™ื“ื™ ืขืžื•ื“ื™ื ื“ืงื•ืจื˜ื™ื‘ื™ื™ื ื•ื—ืœื•ื ื•ืช ืžืงื•ืฉืชื™ื, ืžื™ื™ืฆื’ื•ืช ืืช ื‘ื ื™ื™ืŸ ื”ื—ืœื•ืฅ ื•ืืช ืืจืงื™ื™ื“ ื’ืจื ื“ ืกื ื˜ืจืœ.

ืžืจื›ื– ื”ืขื™ืจ ื”ืžืงื•ืจื™ ื ืคื’ืข ื‘ืฉื ื•ืช ื”ืขืฉืจื™ื ืฉืœ ื”ืžืื” ื”ืขืฉืจื™ื ื›ืืฉืจ ืขืกืงื™ื ื”ื™ื’ืจื• ืฆืคื•ื ื”, ืื‘ืœ ืจืฉืช ื”ื”ื•ืžื•ื’ื ื™ื ืฉืœ ืžื‘ื ื™ื ื”ื™ื“ื•ืขื” ื‘ืฉื "ื›ื™ื›ืจ ืคื™ื•ื ื™ืจ" ื ืฉืžืจื” ืžื›ื“ื•ืจ ื”ื”ืจื™ืกื” ื‘ืฉื ื•ืช ื” -60 ื”ื•ื“ื•ืช ืœืงืžืคื™ื™ื ื™ื ืฉืœ ืฉื™ืžื•ืจ ื›ืžื• ืกืคื™ื™ื“ืœ. ื‘ื™ืžื™ื ืืœื” ื™ื“ื•ืขื” ื”ืฉื›ื•ื ื” ื”ื”ื™ืกื˜ื•ืจื™ืช ื”ืžืขื•ื“ื“ืช ื‘ื”ืœื™ื›ื” ื”ืืžื ื•ืชื™ืช ื”ื—ื•ื“ืฉื™ืช ืฉืœื” (ื”ืขืชื™ืงื” ื‘ื™ื•ืชืจ ื‘ืื•ืžื”), ื‘ืžืกืขื“ื•ืช ืฉืœ ื—ื•ื•ื” ืืœ ืฉื•ืœื—ืŸ ื•ื‘ืžื•ืขื“ื•ื ื™ ืกืคื•ืจื˜ ืžืฉืขืฉืขื™ื (ืื™ืฆื˜ื“ื™ื•ืŸ ื”ื›ื“ื•ืจื’ืœ ืฉืœ ื”ืขื™ืจ, CenturyLink Field, ื”ื•ื ืฉื›ืŸ ื‘ื•ืœื˜).

ื–ื”ื‘!

ืœืžืจื‘ื” ื”ืื™ืจื•ื ื™ื”, ื”ืื™ืจื•ืข ืฉื”ื ื™ืข ืืช ืกื™ืื˜ืœ ืžืขื™ืจ ื”ื’ื‘ื•ืœ ื”ื”ื™ืงืคื™ืช ืืœ ื”ื‘ื™ืจื” ื”ื‘ืœืชื™ ืžืขื•ืจืขืจืช ืฉืœ ืฆืคื•ืŸ-ืžืขืจื‘ ื”ืื•ืงื™ื™ื ื•ืก โ€‹โ€‹ื”ืฉืงื˜, ื”ืฆื™ืช ืืœืคื™ ืงื™ืœื•ืžื˜ืจื™ื ื‘ื‘ื–ื‘ื•ื– ื”ืงืคื•ื ืฉืœ ื™ื•ืงื•ืŸ ื‘ืงื ื“ื”. ื›ืืฉืจ ื–ื”ื‘ ื”ืชื’ืœื” ื‘ ืงืœื•ื ื“ื™ื™ืง ืงืจื™ืง ื‘ืฉื ืช 1896, ืกื™ืื˜ืœ ื‘ืžื”ื™ืจื•ืช ื”ืงื™ืžื” ืืช ืขืฆืžื” ื›ืžืจื›ื– ื”ืืกืคืงื” โ€‹โ€‹ื•ืืช ื ืงื•ื“ืช ื”ื™ืฆื™ืื” ืขื‘ื•ืจ ืขืฉืจื•ืช ืืœืคื™ ืฆื•ืคื™ื ืคื•ื˜ื ืฆื™ืืœื™ื™ื ืœื›ื™ื•ื•ืŸ ืฆืคื•ืŸ ื“ืจืš ื”ืžืขื‘ืจ ื”ืคื ื™ืžื™ ืืœืกืงื”. ื”ืžืกืคืงื™ื ืฆืฆื• ื‘ื›ืœ ืคื™ื•ื ื™ืจ ืกืงื•ื•ืจ, ื›ืฉื”ื ืžืœ ืขืœื” ืžื“ื™ ื™ื•ื ืขื ืื•ื ื™ื•ืช ืžืœืื•ืช ื—ื•ืœืžื™ื ื‘ืขืœื™ ืขื™ื ื™ื™ื ื ื•ืฆืฆื•ืช (ื•ื ื•ื›ืœื™ื). ืžืื•ืจื’ื ืช ื‘ืชื•ื“ืขื” ื”ืœืื•ืžื™ืช ื›ืžื• ื›ืœ ื”ื‘ื”ืœื” ืœื–ื”ื‘ ืื—ืจ ืœืคื ื™ ืื• ืžืื–, ื”ืจื•ื— ืฉืœ ืงืœื•ื ื“ื™ื™ืง ื ืฉืžืจ ื‘ืคืืจืง ื”ื™ืกื˜ื•ืจื™ ืœืื•ืžื™ ื™ื™ื—ื•ื“ื™ ื‘ืืจื”"ื‘ ืคื™ืฆื•ืœ ื‘ื™ืŸ ื”ืžืื—ื–ื™ื ื›ืคื•ืœ ื‘ืกื™ืื˜ืœ ืกืงืื’ื•ื•ื™, ืืœืกืงื”. ืžื•ื–ื™ืื•ืŸ ืกื™ืื˜ืœ ื‘ืคืืจืง ื‘ื›ื™ื›ืจ ืคื™ื•ื ื™ืจ ื”ื•ื ื—ื’ื™ื’ื” ืžื•ื—ื™ืช, ืืฉืจ ืขื•ืงื‘ืช ืื—ืจ ืกื™ืคื•ืจื™ื”ื ืฉืœ ื—ืžื™ืฉื” ื—ื•ืชืžื™ื ืžืกืžืจื˜ื•ื˜ื™ื ืœืขื•ืฉืจ (ืžื–ื“ืžืŸ) ื‘ืคื™ืจื•ื˜ ืžืจืชืง.

ืžื•ืขื“ื•ืŸ ื”ืืจืงื˜ื™

ืชืฉืขื™ื ื•ื—ืžื™ืฉื” ืื—ื•ื– ืžื”ื—ืœื•ืฆื™ื ื”ืืจืฆื™ื™ื ืฉืœ ืงืœื•ื ื“ื™ื™ืง ื—ื–ืจื• ื”ื‘ื™ืชื” ืขื ืกื™ืคื•ืจื™ ื”ืจืคืชืงืื•ืช ื‘ืœื‘ื“; ืื‘ืœ ื”ืžืขื˜ื™ื ืฉืคื’ืขื• ื‘ื” ืขืฉื™ืจื™ื ื”ืชืื’ื“ื• ื›ื“ื™ ืœื”ืงื™ื ืื’ื•ื“ืช ื•ืชื™ืงื™ื ื‘ืขื™ืจ ืฉื”ืฉื™ืงื” ืืช ื”ืงืจื™ื™ืจื” ื”ืžื˜ืื•ืจื™ืช ืฉืœื”ื. ืžืจื›ื– ื”ืขื™ืจ ืฉืœ ืืจืงื˜ื™ ืงืœืื‘ ื‘ืžืจื›ื– ื‘ื•ืœื˜ืช ื›ืื—ื“ ื”ื™ืจื•ืฉื” ื”ืื“ืจื™ื›ืœื™ืช ื‘ื™ื•ืชืจ ืฉืœ ืกื™ืื˜ืœ ื”ื™ืจื•ืฉื”. ื”ืžื‘ื ื” ื ื‘ื ื” ื‘ืกื’ื ื•ืŸ ืืžื ื•ืช ืงืœืืกื™ ื‘ืกื’ื ื•ืŸ ื‘ื•ื– ื‘ืฉื ืช 1916, ื•ืžืื•ืคื™ื™ืŸ ื‘ืืจื™ื—ื™ ื˜ืจืงื•ื˜ื” ืื˜ืจืงื˜ื™ื‘ื™ื™ื ื•ืจืืฉื™ ืกื•ืกื ื™ื ืืงืกืฆื ื˜ืจื™ื™ื ื”ื‘ื•ืœื˜ื™ื ืžื”ื—ื–ื™ืช ื›ืžื• ืžืคืœืฆื•ืช ืขื ืงื™ื•ืช ืžื™ืžื™ ื”ื‘ื™ื ื™ื™ื. ื”ืžื•ืขื“ื•ืŸ ื”ืชืžื•ืกืก ื‘ -1971, ืืš ื”ื‘ื ื™ื™ืŸ, ืฉื ืจืฉื ื›ืขืช ื‘ืžืจืฉื ื”ืœืื•ืžื™ ืฉืœ ืžืงื•ืžื•ืช ื”ื™ืกื˜ื•ืจื™ื™ื, ื”ืชื’ืœื’ืœ ืžืื•ื—ืจ ื™ื•ืชืจ ื›ืžืœื•ืŸ ื™ื•ืงืจื”. ื—ืœืœ ื”ืคื ื™ื ื”ืžื”ื•ืœืœ ื ืฉืืจ ื ืืžืŸ ืœืžื•ืกื“ ื”ื—ื‘ืจืชื™ ื”ืกืกื’ื•ื ื™ ืฉื‘ื• ื”ืชืืจื—ื” ืคืขื ืขื ืœื•ื—ื•ืช ืขืฅ, ื›ื™ืกืื•ืช ืขื•ืจ ื•ืชืฆืœื•ืžื™ื ื‘ืฉื—ื•ืจ ื•ืœื‘ืŸ ืฉืœ ื—ื‘ืจื™ ื”ืžื•ืขื“ื•ืŸ ืœืฉืขื‘ืจ.

ืฉืชืฃ:

ื“ืคื™ื ื“ื•ืžื™ื

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