ื‘ืจื™ื ืงืœืืกื™ื™ื ืฉืœ ืœื•ืก ืื ื’'ืœืก

ื‘ืจื™ื ืงืœืืกื™ื™ื ืฉืœ ืœื•ืก ืื ื’'ืœืก

ืื ื”ืกื•ืจื’ื™ื ื”ื’ื“ื•ืœื™ื ืฉืœ ืœื•ืก ืื ื’'ืœืก ื™ื•ื›ืœื• ืœื“ื‘ืจ, ื”ื ื”ื™ื• ืžืกืคืจื™ื ืกื™ืคื•ืจื™ื ืžืกืงืจื ื™ื ื•ืฆื‘ืขื•ื ื™ื™ื ื›ืžื• ื›ืœ ืื•ืกืฃ ืฉืœ ืฆื™ืœื•ืžื™ ืกืจื˜ื™ื ืขืœ ืžื’ืจืฉื™ ื”ืกื˜ื•ื“ื™ื• ื”ืืจื•ื–ื™ื ืฉืœ ื”ืขื™ืจ: ืฆืœื™ืœื•ืช ืฆื ื•ืขื•ืช ืœืฆืœื™ืœื•ืช ื“ื™ื•ื•ื”, ื‘ืจ ืงื•ืงื˜ื™ื™ืœื™ื, ื˜ืจืงืœื™ื ื™ ืคืกื ืชืจ ืงื™ื˜ืฉื™ื™ื, ืžืงื“ืฉื™ื ืฉืœ ื˜ื™ืงื™ ื˜ืจืกื•ืช ืขื ื ื•ืคื™ื ืžืจืขื™ืฉื™ื. ื—ืœืงื ืขื‘ื™ื ืขื ื”ื”ื™ืกื˜ื•ืจื™ื” ื”ื•ืœื™ื•ื•ื“ ื”ื™ืฉืŸ, ื•ืื™ืœื• ื‘ ืงืœืืกื™ืงื•ืช ืฉืœ ื™ืžื™ื ื• ืืชื” ื™ื›ื•ืœ ืœืฆืคื•ืช ืขืงืจืช ื‘ื™ืช ื ื“ืœ ื›ื“ื™ ืœื”ืฉืชื–ืฃ ืคื ื™ืžื”.

ืžืจื›ื– ืœื•ืก ืื ื’'ืœืก

ื”ืžืกืข ืฉืœื ื• ืžืชื—ื™ืœ ื‘ L.A. ืคืขื ืื—ืช ื™ืฉื ื•ื ื™ ืื‘ืœ ืขื›ืฉื™ื• ืจื•ืขื ื”ืขื™ืจ. ืงื‘ืœ ืืช ื”ืžืกื‘ื™ื ืฉืœืš ืขืœ ื”ื’ื’ ื‘ืจ ืฉืœ ืžืœื•ืŸ ืžืชืžืฆื ื‘ืขื™ืฆื•ื‘ ืจื’ื™ืœ ื‘ ื”ืžืจื” ืื™ืฉ ืขืฆื‘ื ื™- ืžืฉืจื“ ื”ื ืคื˜ ืฉืœ ื—ื‘ืจืช ื”ื ืคื˜. ื™ืฉ ืžืกื™ื‘ืช ืฆื“ ืœืœื ื”ืคืกืงื” ื‘ื™ืŸ ืืกื˜ืจื•ื•ืจืฃ ืื“ื•ืžื”, ื‘ืจื™ื›ืช ืฉื—ื™ื™ื”, ืชืจืžื™ืœื™ ืžื™ื, ื˜ื•ืคื™ืืจื™ื, ืชืงืœื™ื˜ื ื™ื ืœื™ืœื™ื™ื ื•ืงื”ืœ ื”ื™ืจืš ื›ื“ื™ ืœื”ืชืื™ื ืืช ื ื•ืคื™ื ืžื“ื”ื™ืžื™ื ืฉืœ ื’ื•ืจื“ ืฉื—ืงื™ื ื‘ืžืจื›ื– ื”ืขื™ืจ.

ื‘ืงืจื‘ืช ืžืงื•ื, ืขืœ ืคื ื™ ื‘ื ื™ื™ืŸ ื‘ืŸ ืžืื” ืฉื ื™ื, ื”ื‘ืจ / ืžืกืขื“ื” ืคืจืฆ'ื™ (Chichi) ืžืฆื™ืข ื ื•ืคื™ื ืฉืœ ื›ื™ื›ืจ ืคืจืฉื™ื ื’ (Pershing) ืžืžืจืคืกืช ื—ื™ืฆื•ื ื™ืช ื•ืžืจืคืกืช ื’ื’. ืงื•ืงื˜ื™ื™ืœื™ื ื™ืฆื™ืจืชื™ื™ื (concombre ืžืชื•ื‘ืœ ืœืžืฉืจืชืช ื”ืฆืจืคืชื™ืช) ืžืœื•ื•ื™ื ื—ื˜ื™ืคื™ื ื›ืžื• poutine ื›ืžื”ื™ืŸ ื• gougéres (ืžืืคื™ื ื ืคื•ื—ื™ื), ื•ืืช ื’ 'ืื– combos ืจื•ืง.

ืœื›ื” ื”ื•ื ื”ืžืงื•ื ื“ื™ื›ืื•ืŸ ื‘ืกื’ื ื•ืŸ ืฉื‘ื• ื›ืœ ื”ืื—ืจื™ื ื ืžื“ื“ื™ื - ื”ื™ื ื–ื›ืชื” ื‘ืคืจืก ื”ืืžืจื™ืงืื™ ื”ื˜ื•ื‘ ืงื•ืงื˜ื™ื™ืœ ื‘ืจ ื‘ 2012 ืกื™ืคื•ืจื™ ืชื—ืจื•ืช ื”ืงื•ืงื˜ื™ื™ืœ. ืขืฅ ืžืจื•ื”ื˜, flocked ื˜ืคื˜ ื•ืžื•ืกื™ืงื” ื—ื™ื” ืœืชืช ืชื—ื•ืฉื” speakeasy ืœื‘ืงืจ ืฉืœืš ื‘ื–ืžืŸ ืฉืืชื” ืœืœื’ื•ื ืขืœ ืงื•ืงื˜ื™ื™ืœื™ื ื“ื™ื•ืง ื“ื™ื•ืง ื›ืžื• ื”ื™ื ื”ืขืžื•ืง (ื’ 'ื™ืŸ, ื•ืจืžื•ื˜ ื™ื‘ืฉ, ืื‘ืกื™ื ืช, ื•ื›ื•'). ื”ื•ื ืžืกืชืชืจ ื‘ื—ื“ืจ ื”ืื—ื•ืจื™ ื‘ืžืกืขื“ื” ืฉืœ ืงื•ืœ (ื‘ืกื‘ื™ื‘ื•ืช 1909), ืฉื ื”ื•ืžืฆื ื›ืจื™ืš ื”ื˜ื‘ื™ืœื” ื”ืฆืจืคืชื™.

ืกื™ืœื‘ืจ ืœื™ื™ืง ื•ืœื•ืก ืคืœื™ื–

ืžืชื’ืœื’ืœ ื‘ืฉื“ืจื•ืช ืกืื ืกื˜ ื™ื‘ื™ื ื ื•ืกืขื™ื ืฆืžื ืืœ ื”ืžื•ื‘ืœืขืช ื”ื™ืคืกื˜ืจ ื”ื•ืงืžื” ืฉืœ ืกื™ืœื‘ืจ ืœื™ื™ืง ื•ืœื•ืก ืคืœื™ื–. ืขื•ื’ืŸ ืฉืœ ืœื•ืก ืคืœื™ื– ื›ืคืจ ืื•ืคื ืชื™, ื“ืจื–ื“ืŸ ืชื•ืื ืืช ื”ืกื’ื ื•ืŸ ืฉืœ ืืžืฆืข ื”ืžืื” ื”ืชื™ื›ื•ืŸ ืขื ืกืฆื ื•ืช ืฉืœ ืจื˜ืจื• ืฉื™ืจื™ื ืฉืœ ืคืกื ืชืจ, ื—ืœื™ืœ, ืชื•ืคื™ื ื• ื‘ืก ืฆืžื“ Marty ื• Elayne, ืžืชืงืŸ ื”ื‘ื™ืช ืžืื– 1982 - ื›ืŸ, ืจืื™ืช ืื•ืชื ืกืจื˜ ืฆื™ืœื•ื ืกื•ื•ื™ื ื’ืจื™ื.

ืืฃ ืขืœ ืคื™ ืฉื”ื™ื ืคืชื—ื” ืœืจืืฉื•ื ื” ืืช ื“ืœืชื•ืชื™ื” ื‘ืื•ืชื• ื–ืžืŸ ื›ืžื• ื‘ื“ืจื–ื“ืŸ, ื”ื˜ื™ืงืื™ ื”ื–ืขื™ืจ, ื‘ืŸ 12 ื”ืฉืจืคืจืคื™ื, ืžืจื’ื™ืฉ ื›ืื™ืœื• ื”ื•ื ืžืขื•ืœื ืื—ืจ ืœื’ืžืจื™. Grizzled ื•ืชื™ืงื™ื ื• cuties ืฆืขื™ืจื™ื ืœืฉืคืฉืฃ ืžืจืคืงื™ื ืขืœ ืžืฉืงืื•ืช ื˜ืจื•ืคื™ื™ื ื—ื–ืงื™ื ื‘ืจืฉืขื•ืช ื‘ืชื•ืš ืขื™ืฆื•ื‘ ืคื•ืœื™ื ื–ื™ ืกื•ืจื™ืืœื™ืกื˜ื™. ืขื•ื“ ืžื’ืข ืฉืœ ืฉื ื•ืช ื” -60 ืฉื‘ื• ื ื•ื›ืœ ืœืชืช ืœืš ืœื”ื™ื•ืช ืฉื•ืคื˜: ื–ื” ื”ื‘ืจ ื”ื™ื—ื™ื“ ืฉืื ื—ื ื• ื™ื•ื“ืขื™ื ื‘ืขื™ืจ ืฉื‘ื” ืžื•ืชืจ ืœืขืฉืŸ, ื‘ื–ื›ื•ืช ืคื™ืจืฆื” ื‘ืื™ืกื•ืจ ืขื™ืฉื•ืŸ ื‘ืงืœื™ืคื•ืจื ื™ื”.

ื”ืื–ื•ืจ ื’ื ืžืืจื— ืืช ืื—ื“ ื”ืกื•ืจื’ื™ื ื”ื’ืื™ื ื‘ื™ื•ืชืจ ืฉืœ ืœื•ืก ืื ื’'ืœืก - ืื›ื‘ืจ, ืฉื˜ื™ืคื— ืื•ื•ื™ืจื” ื‘ืกื’ื ื•ืŸ ืงืกื‘ื”, ืชื™ื‘ืช ื”ื ื’ื™ื ื” ื”ื˜ื•ื‘ื” ื‘ื™ื•ืชืจ ื‘ืขื™ืจ, ืœื™ืœื•ืช ื ื•ืฉื ืžื—ื•ืฅ ืœื—ื“ืจ ื”ืจืืฉื™ (ื“ื™ืกืงื•, ืื•ืžื ื•ื™ื•ืช ื•ืžืœืื›ื•ืช, ืคืกื ืชืจ ื•ืขื•ื“) ื•ืงื”ืœ ื ืžืจืฅ ืฉื™ื›ื•ืœ ืœื”ืฉืชื ื•ืช ืžืฉืขื” ืœืฉืขื”.

ืชืื™ืœื ื“ื™ืช

ื˜ื™ื•ืœ ื“ืจืš ื”ืขื™ืจ ื”ืงืจื•ื‘ื” ืชืื™ืœื ื“ื™ ื”ืงืจื•ื‘ื” ื“ื•ืจืฉ ืจืง ื›ื™ ื‘ืจ-ื”ื•ืคืจ ื™ื”ื™ื” ืžื•ื›ืŸ ืœื›ืœ ื“ื‘ืจ. ื—ื“ืจ ื”ืœื™ืฆื ื™ื ืฉืœ ื“ื™ื™ื‘ื™ ื’'ืžื‘ื• ื™ื•ืฉื‘ ื‘ืชื•ืš ืงื ื™ื•ืŸ ืจืฆื•ืขื”, ื•ืื™ื›ืฉื”ื• ื–ื” ืžืจื’ื™ืฉ ื‘ื“ื™ื•ืง ื›ืžื• ืฉืฆืจื™ืš. ื”ืื˜ืจืงืฆื™ื” ื”ืขื™ืงืจื™ืช ื”ื™ื ื”ืจืงื“ื ื™ื•ืช ื”ืžื•ื˜ื‘ื•ืช ืฉืœ ื”ื ืงื‘ื” ื•ื”ื’ืจื ื“ื™ืŸ ืชืžื•ืจืช ืฉื˜ืจ ืฉืœ $ 1, $ 5 ืื• ืืคื™ืœื•, $ 20 $ ืžื“ื™ ืคืขื. ืงื— ืืช ื–ื” ื›ืกื™ืžืŸ ืœืืžื ื•ืช ืฉืœื”ื ื›ื™ ื’ื‘ืจื™ื ื•ื ืฉื™ื ื”ืœืงื•ื—ื•ืช ื ืจืื” ืœื”ืขืจื™ืฅ ืืช ื”ื”ืฆื’ื•ืช ื”ืืœื” ื‘ืื•ืคืŸ ืฉื•ื•ื”.

ื‘ืžื•ืจื“ ื”ืจื—ื•ื‘, ื”ืจื•ื•ืืจื“ ืื ื“ ืกื˜ื•ืŸ ืžืจื’ื™ืฉื” ื›ืžื• ืžืคืขืœ ื ื˜ื•ืฉ ืขื ืขืฅ ืžืฉื•ื‘ืฉ ื”ื™ื˜ื‘, ื—ืœื•ื ื•ืช ื–ื›ื•ื›ื™ืช ืขื•ืคืจืช ื•ืงื•ื“ ื”ืœื‘ื•ืฉ ืœืœื ืฆื‘ืข. ื‘ืจืžื ื™ื ืžื•ื‘ื˜ื—ื™ื ืฉื•ืคื›ื™ื ืืช ืกืœื•ืื™ ืคื™ืงืก (ืฉื™ืคื•ืŸ, ื’'ื™ืŸ ืกืœื•ื‘, ืœื™ืžื•ืŸ, ืœื™ืงืจ ืื•ื›ืžื ื™ื•ืช, ื“ืจืžื˜ื™ ื›ืœื‘ื™ื ื•ื‘ื•ืง ืฉืœ ืฉื™ื ืจ), ืจื•ื“ืคื™ื ืžืื•ื“ ืืช ื”ื—ื•ืฉืš ื•ืืช ื”ืกืขืจื•ืช (ืจื•ื ื›ื”ื” ื•ื‘ื™ืจื” ื–ื ื’ื‘ื™ืœ), ื•ืขื•ื“ ืงื•ืงื˜ื™ื™ืœื™ื ื•ื‘ื™ืจื•ืช ืกื˜ื ื“ืจื˜ื™ื•ืช. ื—ืคืฉ ืจืงื“ื ื™ื ื‘ื•ืจืœืกืงื™ื™ื ื™ืžื™ ืฉื™ืฉื™ ื•ืฉื‘ืช ื•ืžื•ืกื™ืงื” ื’ืœื™ืฉื” ื™ื•ื ืจืืฉื•ืŸ.

ื”ื•ืœื™ื•ื•ื“

ื‘ืžื•ื‘ื ื™ื ืจื‘ื™ื, ืฉืชื™ื™ื” ื‘ื”ื•ืœื™ื•ื•ื“ ืคื™ืจื•ืฉื” ืœืชืคื•ืก ืฉืจืคืจืฃ ืœืฆื“ ืจื•ื—ื•ืช ื”ืจืคืื™ื ืฉืœ ืžืกืš ื”ื›ืกืฃ. ื”ืื—ืจื•ื ื” ืฉืœ ื”ืฆืœื™ืœื•ืช ื”ื’ื“ื•ืœื•ืช ืฉืœ ื”ื•ืœื™ื•ื•ื“, ื—ื“ืจ ืคืจื•ื™ืง ืžืชืืจื™ืš ืชืงื•ืคืช ื”ืื™ืกื•ืจ, ื›ืืฉืจ ื–ื” ื”ื™ื” - ืœื›ืื•ืจื” - ื—ื•ืจ ื”ืฉืงื™ื” ืขื‘ื•ืจ headliners ื‘ืชื™ืื˜ืจื•ืŸ Pantages ื”ืกืžื•ืš (ืฉื‘ื• ื‘ืจื•ื“ื•ื•ื™ ื”ื›ื‘ื™ืฉ ืžืจืื” ื”ื™ื•ื). ื”ืคื ื™ื ืฉืœื” ื™ืฉืจ ืžืฉื ื•ืช ื” -60: ืžื›ื•ื ืช ืกื™ื’ืจื™ื•ืช ืขืชื™ืงื”, ืฆื™ื•ืจ ืงื™ืจ ืฉืœ ืืœ ื”ื™ืจืฉืคืœื“ ืขื˜ ื•ื“ื™ื• ื‘ืกื’ื ื•ืŸ ืฉืœ ืกืžืœื™ื ื”ื•ืœื™ื•ื•ื“ื™ื ื•ืžืฉืงืื•ืช ื–ื•ืœื™ื ื•ื—ื–ืงื™ื.

ืืกืงื•ื•ื™ื™ืจ ืžื’ื–ื™ืŸ ื‘ืฉื ืžื•ืกื• & ืคืจื ืง ืื—ื“ ื”ืกื•ืจื’ื™ื ื”ื˜ื•ื‘ื™ื ื‘ื™ื•ืชืจ ืฉืœ ืืžืจื™ืงื”. ืœื”ื–ืžื™ืŸ ืžืจื˜ื™ื ื™ ืžื”ืฆื•ื•ืช ื”ืืœื’ื ื˜ื™ ื‘ืžื“ื™ื, ื•ืื—ืจ ื›ืš ืœืฉื‘ืช ื•ืœื—ืคื•ืจ ืืช ื”ืกืฆื ื” ืฉืœ ืขื›ื‘ืจื•ืฉ, ืชื™ื ื•ืง. ื‘ื–ืžืŸ ืฉืืชื” ืžืชื ื“ื ื“, ืฆ'ืื• ืขืœ ืกื˜ื™ื™ืงื™ื ืขืชื™ืงื™ื, ืฆืœืขื•ืช ืื• ืžืชื›ื•ืŸ ืืœืคืจื“ื• ืฉืœ ืคื˜ื•ืฆ'ื™ื ื™ ืžื•ื›ื ื™ื ืœื“ื•ื’ืœืก ืคื™ื™ืจื‘ื ืงืก ื•ืžืจื™ ืคื™ืงืคื•ืจื“ ื‘ื™ืจื— ื”ื“ื‘ืฉ ืฉืœื”ื.

ืžืขื‘ืจ ืœืคื™ื ื”, ื‘ื ื“ื ืจ ื”ื™ื” ืžืงื•ื ืžืคื’ืฉ ืฉืœ ื”ื•ืœื™ื•ื•ื“ ืžืื•ืจื•ืช ืžืื– 1942: ืจืฉื™ืžืช ื”ืกืœื‘ืก ื›ื•ืœืœืช ืืช ื›ื•ืœื ืžืืจื•ืœ ืคืœื™ืŸ ื•ื’'ื•ื ื™ ืงืจืกื•ืŸ ืœืคื’ื™ ืœื™ ื•ืœืžื ื”ืœ ื”ืกืจื˜, ืื“ ื•ื•ื“ (ืœื‘ื“ื•ืง ืืช ื”ืชืžื•ื ื•ืช ืฉืœ ื’'ื•ื ื™ ื“ืค ืฉืžืฉื—ืง ืื•ืชื• ื›ืืŸ ื” ืื“ ื•ื•ื“ ื”ืกืจื˜ ื™ื•ืจื”) ื™ื—ื“ ืขื ืื’ื“ื•ืช ื‘ื™ื™ืกื‘ื•ืœ ืžื™ืงื™ ืžื ื˜ืœ ื•ื’ 'ื• DiMaggio. ื”ื‘ืจ ื”ื™ื” ื’ื ืžื•ืขื“ืฃ ืฉืœ ืืœื•ืฃ ืฉืœ ื›ืœ ื”ืฉืชื™ื™ื ื™ื, ืฆ 'ืืจืœืก Bukowski. ื‘ืžื•ืขื“ื•ืŸ ื”ืœื™ืœื” ื”ืกืžื•ืš ื™ืฉ ืœื™ืœื•ืช ื ื•ืฉื ืกื•ืขืจื™ื ืžืฉื ื•ืช ื” -80 ืœื’ื•ืช '.

ืžื—ื•ืฅ ืœื’ืจื•ืจ ื”ืจืืฉื™ ื”ื•ื ื”ืืจื ื‘ื™ื” ื‘ื”ืฉืจืืช ื ื™ื• ืื•ืจืœื™ื ืก ืฉืœ ื—ื“ืจื™ื ืฉืœ Sassafras.ืœื”ื–ืžื™ืŸ ืืช ื”ื”ื•ืจื™ืงืŸ (ื—ืชื™ืžื” ื’ื“ื•ืœื” ืžืฉืงื” ืงืœ ืžืขืจื‘ื•ืœืช ื™ื—ื“ ืชืขืจื•ื‘ืช ื—ื–ืงื” ืฉืœ ืจื•ืžืก ื•ืžื™ืฆื™ื) ืื• ืขืฉืจื•ืช ืงื•ืงื˜ื™ื™ืœื™ื ืžื™ื•ื—ื“ื™ื ื›ื•ืœืœ ืชืขืจื•ื‘ื•ืช ื‘ืงื‘ื•ืงื™ ืžืกืชื•ื‘ื‘ ืžืขืœ ื”ื‘ืจ ืขืœ ืžืชืœื” ืžืขื™ืœ ืขืชื™ืง, ืจื•ืง ืืœ ื”ืžื•ืกื™ืงื” ื”ื—ืžื”, ืžื“ื™ ืœื™ืœื”.

ืžืขืจื‘ ื”ื•ืœื™ื•ื•ื“ ื•ื‘ื•ื•ืจืœื™ ื”ื™ืœืก

ืœื‘ืกื•ืฃ, ืœื›ื•ื•ืŸ ืืช ื ื”ื’ ื”ืžื•ื ื™ืช ืฉืœืš (ืื• ื ื”ื’ ื”ืžื™ื•ืขื“ ืžืื•ื“ ืœืžื˜ื•ืคืœ) ื‘ืžืขืœื” ืจื—ื•ื‘ ืกืื ืกื˜ ื”ืื’ื“ื™ ืœื›ื™ื•ื•ืŸ ืžืขืจื‘ ื”ื•ืœื™ื•ื•ื“ ื•ื‘ื‘ื•ืจืœื™ ื”ื™ืœืก ื”ืžืคื•ืืจืช ืฉืžืขื‘ืจ ืœื•, ื”ื—ืœ ืžื‘ืจ ืžืจืžื•ื ื˜. ืืœื’ื ื˜ื™ ืืš ืœื ืชืงื•ืข, ื”ื™ื” ื‘ืกื‘ื™ื‘ื” ืขื“ื™ื™ืŸ ืขื“ื™ื™ืŸ ื™ืงืจ, ื–ื” ื‘ืจ storied ื‘ ืฉืื˜ื• ื”ืื’ื“ื™ ืžืจืžื•ื ื˜ ืžืœื•ืŸ ืžื•ืกืชืจ ืžืขืœ ืจืฆื•ืขืช ืฉืงื™ืขื” ืžืื– 1927 ื•ืžืžืฉื™ื›ื” ืœืžืฉื•ืš ื”ืžืคื•ืจืกื ื•ืืช ื”ืœื•ื•ืื™- weres ืขื ืชืงืจื•ืช ื’ื‘ื•ื”ื•ืช, ืงื™ืจื•ืช ื™ืฆื•ืง ื•ืžืฉืงืื•ืช ื”ื—ืœ ืžืŸ ืืคืจื™ื˜ื™ืฃ ืงืœืืกื™ ื›ื“ื™ ืžืจืžื•ื ื˜ ืžืื™ ื˜ืื™.

ื”ืžื ื–ืจ ื”ืฉืจื•ืข ื”ื•ื (ืจื‘ื™ื ื™ื’ื™ื“ื•) ื”ื‘ืจ / ื”ื•ืžื•ืื™ื ืฉืœ ืืžืจื™ืงื” / ืžืกืขื“ื” ืฉืœ ื”ืจืฉื•ืžื”. ื™ืฉ ื›ืœ ื›ืš ื”ืจื‘ื” ืกื•ื’ื™ื ืฉื•ื ื™ื ืฉืœ martinis ื• mojitos ื‘ื˜ืขื ืฉืืชื” ื—ื•ืฉื‘ ืฉื”ื ื”ื•ืžืฆืื• ื›ืืŸ, ื‘ืชื•ืกืคืช ืชืคืจื™ื˜ ืžืœื. ื”ืชืื™ืžื• ืืช ืžืฆื‘ ื”ืจื•ื— ืฉืœื›ื ืœื—ืœืœื™ื ื”ืฉื•ื ื™ื, ืžืŸ ื”ืคื˜ื™ื• ื”ื—ื™ืฆื•ื ื™ ื”ืชื•ืกืก ื•ืขื“ ืœืจื—ื‘ืช ื”ืจื™ืงื•ื“ื™ื ืฉืœ ื’ื•ืช '.

ื•ืื™ื–ื• ื“ืจืš ื˜ื•ื‘ื” ื™ื•ืชืจ ืœืกื™ื™ื ืืช ื”ืžืกืข ืฉืœื ื• ืžืืฉืจ ื‘ืืจืžื•ืŸ ื”ื•ื•ืจื•ื“ ื”ืื”ื•ื‘ื” ืฉืœ ื‘ื•ื•ืจืœื™ ื”ื™ืœืก, "ื”ื™ื“ื•ืขื” ืจืฉืžื™ืช ื‘ืฉื ืžืœื•ืŸ ื‘ื•ื•ืจืœื™ ื”ื™ืœืก (ื‘ืกื‘ื™ื‘ื•ืช 1912). ื”ื˜ืจืงืœื™ืŸ ืฉืœ ืคื•ืœื• ืขื ื”ืขืฅ ืฉื™ืžืฉ ืžื–ื” ื–ืžืŸ ืจื‘ ื›ืžืคืงื“ื” ืœื ืจืฉืžื™ืช ืฉืœ ื”ืืœื™ื˜ื” ืฉืœ โ€‹โ€‹ื”ื•ืœื™ื•ื•ื“: ื“ืืจื™ืœ ื–ืื ื•ืง, ืกืคื ืกืจ ื˜ืจื™ื™ืกื™, ื•ื•ื™ืœ ืจื•ื’'ืจืก ื‘ืฉื ื•ืช ื”ืฉืœื•ืฉื™ื; ื”ื™ื•ื ืืชื” ื™ื›ื•ืœ ืœืจื’ืœ ืžื™ืฉื”ื• ืžื™ืฆื—ืง ืžื–ืจื—ื™ ืœื’'ื•ืจื’ 'ื”ืžื™ืœื˜ื•ืŸ ืœื“ื•ื™ื“ ืืจืงื˜, ืชื•ืš ืฉื™ืœื•ื‘ ืฉืœ ื‘ื’ื“ื™ ื˜ื ื™ืก, ื—ืœื™ืคื•ืช ืขืกืงื™ื ื•ืฉืžืœื•ืช ืฆ'ื™ืฆ'ื™.

ืฉืชืฃ:

ื“ืคื™ื ื“ื•ืžื™ื

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