ื”ืจืคืชืงื ื™ื ื”ื™ืกื˜ื•ืจื™ื™ื ื‘ื“ืจืš ืžืขื ื™ื™ื ืช ื™ื•ืชืจ ืžืžืš

ื”ืจืคืชืงื ื™ื ื”ื™ืกื˜ื•ืจื™ื™ื ื‘ื“ืจืš ืžืขื ื™ื™ื ืช ื™ื•ืชืจ ืžืžืš

ื‘ืกื™ื›ื•ืŸ ืœื”ืชื—ื™ืœ ืขืœ ืคืชืง bummer, ื–ื” ื”ื—ื•ื‘ื” ื”ืขืฆื•ื‘ื” ืฉืœื™ ืœืืฉืจ ื›ื™ ื”ื’ื™ืœ ืฉืœ ืคื•ืจืฆืช ื“ืจืš, ื›ื“ื•ืจ ื”ืืจืฅ ืงืฉื•ืจื” ื”ืจืคืชืงื” ื”ื•ื ืœืžืขืฉื” ืžืขืœ. ืืคื™ืœื• ื™ืขื“ื™ื ืœื ื™ื“ื•ืขื™ื ื”ื ื›ืขืช ืจืง ื—ื™ืคื•ืฉ ื‘- Google, ื•ื”ื ื›ื ืจืื” ื™ืฉ Feed Instagram ืคืขื™ืœ. ื”ืืชื’ืจ ื”ื™ื—ื™ื“ ืžืกื‘ื™ื‘ ืœืขื•ืœื ื ื•ืชืจ ื›ืจื•ืš ื‘ื ืกื™ืขื” ืขืœ ืžืงืœ ืคื•ื’ื• - ืœืื—ื•ืจ. ืžื™ืฉื”ื•, ืื™ืคืฉื”ื•, ื›ื‘ืจ ื“ืจืก ืืช ื”ื ื™ื‘ื™ื ื”ืžืจื•ื—ืงื™ื ื‘ื™ื•ืชืจ, ืืช ื”ืกื“ื ื™ื ื•ืืช ืคืกื’ื•ืช ื”ื”ืจื™ื; ื•ืืช ื”ืžืงื•ืžื•ืช ื”ืืœื” ื™ืฉ ื’ื Wi-Fi ื”ื’ื•ืŸ.

ืื‘ืœ ืงื— ืœื‘, ื”ืจืคืชืงืŸ: ื”ื“ื‘ืจ ื”ื™ืคื” ืขืœ ื ืกื™ืขื•ืช ื”ื•ื ืœื ืฉืืชื” ื”ืจืืฉื•ืŸ ืื• ื”ื˜ื•ื‘ ื‘ื™ื•ืชืจ ืื• ืืคื™ืœื• ืืช baddest; ื–ื” ื’ื™ืœื•ื™ ืื™ืฉื™, ืฆืžื™ื—ื” ื•ืžื™ืžื•ืฉ ืืชื” ืœืœืงื˜ ื‘ื“ืจืš. ืืชื” ื™ื›ื•ืœ ืœื”ื™ื•ืช 119,837,857 ืื“ื ืœืฉื™ื ืขื™ื ื™ื™ื ืขืœ ืคื•ืžืคื™ื™, ืื‘ืœ ืžื” ืฉื—ืฉื•ื‘ ื”ื•ื ืื™ืš ื–ื” ื ื™ืกื™ื•ืŸ ืžืฉืคื™ืข ื•ืžืขืฆื‘ ืื•ืชืš ื›ืคืจื˜.

ืœื”ืœืŸ ืžื‘ื—ืจ ืงื˜ืŸ ืฉืœ ื”ื”ืจืคืชืงื ื™ื ื”ืžื˜ื•ืจืคื™ื ื•ื”ืžื˜ื•ืจืคื™ื ื‘ื™ื•ืชืจ ื‘ื”ื™ืกื˜ื•ืจื™ื”. ืืชื” ื›ื ืจืื” ืœืขื•ืœื ืœื ื™ื”ื™ื” ืžืขื ื™ื™ืŸ ื›ืžื• ืื•ืชื, ืื‘ืœ ื–ื” ืœื ืื•ืžืจ ืฉืืชื” ืœื ื™ื›ื•ืœ ืœืงื•ืฃ ื”ืจืคืชืงืื•ืช ืฉืœื”ื ื•ืœื”ืคื•ืš ืื•ืชื - ื‘ืžื•ื‘ืŸ ืžืกื•ื™ื - ืžืฉืœืš.

ืืจื™ืง ื”ืื“ื•ื / ืœื™ื™ืฃ ืืจื™ืงืกื•ืŸ

ืงืจื—ื•ื ื™ื ืขื™ืฆื‘ื• ืืช ื”ื ื•ืฃ ืฉืœ ื’ืจื™ื ืœื ื“, ืฉื ืืจื™ืง ื”ืื“ื•ื ื”ืคืš ืœืžืชื ื—ืœ ื”ืื™ืจื•ืคื™ ื”ืจืืฉื•ืŸ. ืชืžื•ื ื” ืฉืœ @ aliengrove / ื’ 'ื•ืŸ Bowles / ืžื•ืžื ื˜ / Getty ืชืžื•ื ื•ืช.

ื”ืจืคืชืงืื•ืช ืจืื•ื™ ืœืฆื™ื•ืŸ: ื”ืชื™ื™ืฉื‘ื• ื’ืจื™ื ืœื ื“ ื• (ื‘ืงืฆืจื”) ืฆืคื•ืŸ ืืžืจื™ืงื”.

ื—ื–ืจื” ื›ืืฉืจ ื”ืจื‘ื” ืื ืฉื™ื ืขื“ื™ื™ืŸ ื—ืฉื“ ื›ื™ ืฉื™ื˜ ืืœ ื”ืœื ื ื•ื“ืข ืขืœื•ืœ ืœื”ืกืชื™ื™ื ืขื ืื•ืชื ื ื•ืฉืจื™ื ืืช ืงืฆื” ืฉืœ ื›ื“ื•ืจ ื”ืืจืฅ ืฉื˜ื•ื— ืื• blundering ืœืชื•ืš ื”ืžืื•ืจื” ืฉืœ ื”ื“ืจืงื•ืŸ, ื–ื” ื‘ื˜ื— ืœืงื— ืขืฆื‘ื™ื ืฉืœ ืคืœื“ื” ืขื‘ื•ืจ ื”ืฆืžื“ ื”ื–ื” ืื‘ / ื‘ืŸ ื ื•ืจื•ื•ื’ื™ืช ืœื”ื‘ื”ื™ืจ ืฉื‘ื™ืœ ื’ืจื™ื ืœื ื“ ื•ืฆืคื•ืŸ ืืžืจื™ืงื”.

ืขื ื–ืืช, ืืจื™ืง ื”ืื“ื•ื ืœื ื”ื™ื” ื‘ืจื™ืจื” ืืœื ืœื‘ืจื•ื— ืžืื™ืกืœื ื“ ื•ืœื”ื™ื•ืช ื”ืžืชื ื—ืœ ื”ืื™ืจื•ืคื™ ื”ืจืืฉื•ืŸ ืขืœ ื’ืจื™ื ืœื ื“ ื‘ืฉื ืช 986 ืœืกืคื™ืจื” ื‘ื’ืœืœ ื”ื ืฉื•ืจืช ื”ืจืฆื—ื ื™ืช ืฉืœ ืžื–ื’ ืจืข ืฉืœื•. ื ืกื™ืขื•ืช / ื—ื™ืคื•ืฉื™ื ื‘ืขืงื‘ื•ืช ื’ื™ืจื•ืฉ ืจืฅ ื‘ืžืฉืคื—ื” - ืื‘ื™ื• ืฉืœ ืืจื™ืง ื ืฉื˜ืฃ ื‘ืื™ืกืœื ื“ ืœืื—ืจ ืฉื”ื•ื–ืžืŸ ืœืขื–ื•ื‘ ืืช ื ื•ืจื‘ื’ื™ื” ืžืกื™ื‘ื•ืช ื“ื•ืžื•ืช.

ืœื™ื™ืฃ ืืจื™ืงืกื•ืŸ, ืฉืฉื‘ืจ ืืช ื”ืžืกื•ืจืช ืขืœ ื™ื“ื™ ืจืฆื— ืœืื™ืฉ, ื ื“ื—ืฃ ืžืขืจื‘ื” ื›ื“ื™ ืœืžืฆื•ื ืืช "ื•ื™ื ืœื ื“" (ื”ื™ื“ื•ืข ื›ื™ื•ื ื›"ื ื™ื•ืคืื•ื ื“ืœื ื“"), ืฉืกืคื™ื ืช ืกื•ื—ืจ ืื—ืจืช ื“ื™ื•ื•ื—ื” ืขืœ ืจืื™ื™ืชื” ืœืื—ืจ ืฉื”ืชืคื•ืฆืฆื”. Leif ื”ื’ื™ืขื• ืœืืจืฅ ื•ืขื–ืจื• ืœื”ืงื™ื ื”ืชื ื—ืœื•ื™ื•ืช ื‘ืกื‘ื™ื‘ื•ืช 1000 ืœืกืคื™ืจื”, ืืฉืจ ืฉื™ืžืฉื• ื›ื‘ืกื™ืก ืœืžืฉืœื•ื— ืขืฅ ื‘ื—ื–ืจื” ื’ืจื™ื ืœื ื“. ืžืกื™ื‘ื•ืช ืฉื•ื ื•ืช, ื›ืœ ื”ื”ืชื ื—ืœื•ื™ื•ืช ื ื ื˜ืฉื• ืœืื—ืจ ืฉื ื™ื ืกืคื•ืจื•ืช ื‘ืœื‘ื“.

ืœื—ืงื•ืช ืื•ืชื: ื‘ื™ืŸ ืื ืืชื” ื›ื‘ืจ ื’ื•ืจืฉ ืžืŸ ื”ืžื“ื™ื ื” ืฉืœืš ื”ื‘ื™ืชื”, ื ืกื™ืขื” ื“ืจืš ื ื™ื•ืคืื•ื ื“ืœื ื“ ื•ื’ืจื™ื ืœื ื“ ื™ื›ื•ืœ ืœื”ื™ื•ืช ื—ื•ื•ื™ื” ืื—ืจืช, ืžืขืฉื™ืจื” ืืคื™ืœื• ื”ื™ื•ื.

ืคืจื“ื™ื ื ื“ ืžื’ืœืŸ

ืชื—ืจื™ื˜ ืฉืœ ื—ื•ืงืจ ื”ืคื•ืจื˜ื•ื’ืœื™ื ื”ืื•ืžืœืœ, ืคืจื“ื™ื ื ื“ ืžื’ืœืŸ. ืชืžื•ื ื” ืžืชื•ืš ื•ื™ืงื™ืคื“ื™ื”.

ื”ืจืคืชืงืื•ืช ืจืื•ื™ ืœืฆื™ื•ืŸ: ืืจื’ืŸ ืืช ื”ืžื—ื–ื•ืจ ื”ืจืืฉื•ืŸ ืฉืœ ื›ื“ื•ืจ ื”ืืจืฅ.

ืชื•ืš ื›ื“ื™ ืžืฉื—ืง ืขืœ ื”ืจื’ืฉื” ื”ืจืกื ื™ืช ืขืœ ื”ืžืกืœื•ืœ ื”ืžืขืจื‘ื™ ืงืฆืจ ื™ื•ืชืจ ืžืื™ืจื•ืคื” ืœืื™ื™ ืกืคื™ื™ืก ื‘ืื™ื ื“ื•ื ื–ื™ื”, ืžืื’ืœืืŸ ื™ืœื™ื“ ืคื•ืจื˜ื•ื’ืœ ืืจื’ืŸ ื‘ืฉื•ื’ื’ ืืช circumnavigation ื”ืจืืฉื•ืŸ ืฉืœ ื›ื“ื•ืจ ื”ืืจืฅ. ืื‘ืœ ื”ื•ื ืœื ืžืงื‘ืœ ื”ืจื‘ื” ืงืจื“ื™ื˜. ื”ืกื™ื‘ื” ืœื›ืš ื”ื™ื ืฉื”ื•ื ื•ืจื•ื‘ ื”ืฆื•ื•ืช ืฉืœื• ืœื ื”ืฉืœื™ืžื• ืืช ื”ืžืกืข ื”ื•ื“ื•ืช ืœืžืจื“ - ื•ื”ื•ืฆืื•ืช ืœื”ื•ืจื’ ืขื•ื ืฉื™ืŸ - ื ื˜ื™ืฉื”, ืžืœื—ืžื•ืช, ืžื—ืœื•ืช ื•ืจืขื‘.

ื”ืžืกืข ื”ื•ืฉืœื ื‘ืกื•ืคื• ืฉืœ ื“ื‘ืจ ืขืœ ื™ื“ื™ ืžื•ืจื“ ื”ืกืœื—ืŸ ื—ื•ืืŸ ืกื‘ืกื˜ื™ืืŸ Elcano ืœืื—ืจ Magellan ื ื”ืจื’ ื‘ืคื™ืœื™ืคื™ื ื™ื. ืžืชื•ืš ื—ืžืฉืช ื”ืื•ื ื™ื•ืช ื• -270 ื”ื’ื‘ืจื™ื ืฉื™ืฆืื• ืžืกื‘ื™ืœื™ื” ื‘ืื•ื’ื•ืกื˜ 1519, ืจืง ืกืคื™ื ื” ืื—ืช, ืขืžื•ืกืช ืชื‘ืœื™ื ื™ื, ืฉื ืฉืื” ืจืง 18 ื’ื‘ืจื™ื ืžื”ืฆื•ื•ืช ื”ืžืงื•ืจื™, ืฆื ื—ื” ื—ื–ืจื” ืœืกืคืจื“ ื‘ืกืคื˜ืžื‘ืจ 1522. ืื—ืจ ื›ืš, ื‘ื‘ื™ืช, ืžื‘ื™ื ืืช ืžืกืคืจ ื”ื ื™ืฆื•ืœื™ื ืœ -38.

ืืฃ ืขืœ ืคื™ ืฉืœื ื–ื›ื” ืœืชื”ื™ืœื”, ืœืžื–ืœ ื•ืœืงื™ืฆื•ืจ ื”ื“ืจืš ืœืื™ื™ ื”ืชื‘ืœื™ื ื™ื ืฉื—ื–ื”, ืžืฉืœื—ืชื• ืฉืœ ืžื’ืœืŸ ื”ืจื—ื™ื‘ื” ืžืื•ื“ ืืช ื”ื™ื“ืข ืฉืœ ืื™ืจื•ืคื” ืขืœ ื”ืขื•ืœื, ื›ื•ืœืœ ื”ืชื’ืœื™ืช ื”ืžืงืจื™ืช ืฉืœ ื”ืื•ืงื™ืื ื•ืก ื”ืฉืงื˜, ื•ื’ื™ืœืชื” ื›ื™ืฆื“ ื›ื•ื›ื‘ ื”ืœื›ืช ื”ื™ื” ืงืฆืช ื™ื•ืชืจ ื’ื“ื•ืœ ืžืืฉืจ ืฉืžื™ืฉื”ื• ื—ืฉื“ ืงื•ื“ื ืœื›ืŸ. ื›ืžื• ื›ืŸ, ืœืžืจื•ืช ืฉื–ื” ื”ื™ื” ืžื–ืžืŸ ื”ืฆื™ืข ื›ื™ ื›ื“ื•ืจ ื”ืืจืฅ ื”ื•ื ื›ื ืจืื” ืœื ืฉื˜ื•ื—, ื–ื” misadventure ื”ื™ื” ื”ื”ื•ื›ื—ื” ื”ืจืืฉื•ื ื” ืืžืคื™ืจื™ ื”ืขื•ืœื ื›ื“ื•ืจื™ืช.

ืœื—ืงื•ืช ืื•ืชื•: ืกื™ื‘ื•ื‘ ืฉื™ื˜ ืžืกื‘ื™ื‘ ืœืขื•ืœื ืื™ื ื• ืžืฉืขืžื ืื• ืจื’ื™ืœ. ื•ืื ืคื•ื˜ื ืฆื™ืืœ ื”ืžืจื“, ื ื˜ื™ืฉื”, ืžืœื—ืžื•ืช, ืžื—ืœื”, ืจืขื‘ ืžืชืื™ื ื”ืจืขื™ื•ืŸ ืฉืœืš ืฉืœ ืžืกืข ื”ืจืคืชืงื”, ืืชื” ืชืžื™ื“ ื™ื›ื•ืœ ืœื”ื–ืžื™ืŸ ื›ืžื” ื˜ื™ืกื•ืช ืขืœ ื—ื‘ืจืช ืชืขื•ืคื” ื‘ืชืงืฆื™ื‘.

ืื‘ืŸ ื‘ื˜ื•ื˜ื”

ืกืจื“ื™ื ื™ื” ื”ื™ื” ืื—ื“ ืžืžืงื•ืžื•ืช ืจื‘ื™ื ืขืœ ื”ืžืกืœื•ืœ ื”ืžืงื™ืฃ ืฉืœ ืื‘ืŸ ื‘ืื˜ื•ื˜ื”. ืชืžื•ื ื” ืฉืœ ืื™ื˜ื™ ืชืžื•ื ื•ืช / ื‘ื ืง ืชืžื•ื ื” / Getty ืชืžื•ื ื•ืช.

ื”ืจืคืชืงืื•ืช ืจืื•ื™ ืœืฆื™ื•ืŸ: ื”ืฉืขื•ืŸ ืœืžืขืœื” ืžืจืฉื™ื 73,000 ืงื™ืœื•ืžื˜ืจื™ื ื‘ืžื”ืœืš ื”ืžืื” ื” -14.

ื‘ืขื•ื“ ืจื•ื‘ ื”ืื ืฉื™ื ื”ืžืคื•ืจื˜ื™ื ื›ืืŸ ื ืกืข ืขื ืžื˜ืจื” ืกืคืฆื™ืคื™ืช ืœืžื“ื™ ื‘ืจืืฉ, ืื‘ืŸ Battuta ืจืง ื”ื™ื” ื“ื—ืฃ ืœืฉื•ื˜ื˜. ื•ื”ื•ื ืขืฉื” ืืช ื–ื”.

ื‘ืจื‘ืจื™ืช ืžืžืจื•ืงื•, ื‘ืื˜ื•ื˜ื” ื‘ืžืงื•ืจ ืขื–ื‘ ืืช ื”ื‘ื™ืช ื›ื“ื™ ืœืขืœื•ืช ืœืจื’ืœ ืœืจื’ืœ ืœืžื›ื”. ืžืฉื ื”ื•ื ื”ืžืฉื™ืš ืœืœื›ืช. ื‘ืžืฉืš ื›ืžืขื˜ 30 ืฉื ื” (1325-1354) ื”ื•ื ื ืกืข ื› -73,000 ืงื™ืœื•ืžื˜ืจื™ื, ื‘ื™ืงืจ ื‘ืงื”ื™ืจ, ืžื•ื’ื“ื™ืฉื•, ื—ืฆื™ ื”ืื™ ืขืจื‘, ืขื™ืจืืง, ืงื•ื ืกื˜ื ื˜ื™ื ื•ืคื•ืœ, ื‘ื•ืœื’ืจื™ื”, ืžืจื›ื– ืืกื™ื”, ื”ื•ื“ื•, ืกืจื™ ืœื ืงื”, ื”ืžืœื“ื™ื‘ื™ื™ื, ืื™ื ื“ื•ื ื–ื™ื”, ื•ื™ื™ื˜ื ืื, ื‘ื™ื™ื’'ื™ื ื’, ืกืจื“ื™ื ื™ื”, ืกืคืจื“ , Timbuktu ื•ืœืื—ืจ ืžื›ืŸ ื‘ื—ื–ืจื” ื”ื‘ื™ืชื” ืœืœื, ื›ืžื•ื‘ืŸ, ืืช ื”ืขื–ืจื” ืฉืœ ื›ืœ ืชื—ื‘ื•ืจื” ืžืžื•ื ืข. ื”ื•ื ืขืฆืจ ืœืขืชื™ื ืงืจื•ื‘ื•ืช ืœืขื‘ื•ื“ื”, ืœืฉืคืฉืฃ ื›ืชืคื™ื™ื ืขื ื”ืขืฉื™ืจื™ื, ื”ืžืคื•ืจืกืžื™ื ื•ื”ื—ื–ืงื™ื ืฉืœ ื”ืชืงื•ืคื”, ืœื”ืชื—ืชืŸ ืœืœื ืกืคืง ืœืœื ืกืคืง ืขื ื ืฉื™ื ืกื•ื‘ืœื•ืช ื–ืžืŸ ืจื‘, ืœื”ื™ืชืงืœ ื‘ื”ืจืคืชืงืื•ืช ืฉื•ื ื•ืช / ืฆืจื•ืช ื•ืœื”ืชืื•ืฉืฉ ืžืžื” ืฉื”ื™ื” ื‘ื•ื•ื“ืื™ ืื™ื–ื” ืฉืœืฉื•ืœ ื ื•ืจื ืฉืœ ืฉืœืฉื•ืœ.

ื“ื™ื•ื•ื—ื™ื ืขืœ ืžืกืขื•ืชื™ื• ืฉืœ ื‘ืื˜ื•ื˜ื” - ืฉื”ื•ื›ืชื‘ื• ืžื”ื–ื™ื›ืจื•ืŸ ื›ืื™ื ื• ืžื—ื–ื™ืง ื‘ื™ื•ืžืŸ - ืคื•ืจืกืžื• ืžืื•ื—ืจ ื™ื•ืชืจ ื‘"ืจื™ื—ืœื”" ("ื”ืžืกืข").

ืœื—ืงื•ืช ืื•ืชื•: ืื•ื‘ืจืœื ื“, ื ืกื™ืขื” ืขืฆืžื™ืช ื›ื•ื— ื”ื™ื ืงื˜ื ื” ืืš ืžื”ื•ืชื™ืช ื ื™ืฉื” badass.ืืคื™ืœื• ื˜ื™ื•ืœื™ื ืงืฆืจื™ื ื™ื›ื•ืœ ืœื”ื™ื•ืช ืœื”ื’ืฉื™ื ืœืขื•ืจืจ ื™ืจืืช ื›ื‘ื•ื“ ืžื—ื‘ืจื™ื ื•ืขื•ืžื“ื™ื ืžืŸ ื”ืฆื“.

ื ืœื™ ื‘ืœื™

ื ืœื™ ื‘ืœื™ื™ ื›ืžื• ืœืงื—ื” ืืช ื”ืจืขื™ื•ืŸ ืฉืœ ื ืกื™ืขื” ืœืื•ืจ ืœืงื™ืฆื•ื ื™ื•ืช ื—ื“ืฉื” ืขืœ ื”ืžืกืข ื”ื—ืœื•ืฆื™ ืฉืœื” ื‘ืขื•ืœื. ืชืžื•ื ื” ืžืชื•ืš ื•ื™ืงื™ืคื“ื™ื”.

ื”ืจืคืชืงืื•ืช ืจืื•ื™ ืœืฆื™ื•ืŸ: ื”ืจืืฉื•ืŸ "ื›ืžืขื˜ unchaperoned" ืžืกื‘ื™ื‘ ื”ืขื•ืœื ืขืœ ื™ื“ื™ ื ืกื™ืขื” ืขืœ ื™ื“ื™ ืื™ืฉื”.

ื‘ื’ื™ืœ 25, ื”ืขื™ืชื•ื ืื™ืช ื”ืžืคื•ืจืกืžืช ืืœื™ื–ื‘ืช ื’'ื™ื™ืŸ ืงื•ืงืจืŸ, ืฉื›ืชื‘ื” ืชื—ืช ืฉื ื”ืขื˜ ื ืœื™ ื‘ืœื™ื™, ื™ืฆืื” ื‘ -14 ื‘ื ื•ื‘ืžื‘ืจ 1889 ื›ื“ื™ ืœื—ืงื•ืช ืืช ื“ืžื•ืชื• ื”ื‘ื•ืœื˜ืช ืฉืœ ื–'ื•ืœ ื•ืจืŸ, ืคื™ืœื™ืืก ืคื•ื’ ืžืกื‘ื™ื‘ ืœืขื•ืœื ื‘ืฉืžื•ื ื™ื ื™ื•ื. ื”ื™ื ื”ืฉืœื™ืžื” ืืช ื”ื ืกื™ืขื” ื”ื™ื‘ืฉืชื™ืช (ื‘ืจื•ืจ) ื‘ -25 ื‘ื™ื ื•ืืจ 1890, ื‘ื–ืžืŸ ืฉื™ื ืขื•ืœืžื™ ืฉืœ 72 ื™ืžื™ื, ืฉืฉ ืฉืขื•ืช, 11 ื“ืงื•ืช ื• -14 ืฉื ื™ื•ืช. (ื”ืชื™ืขื•ื“ ืฉืœื” ื”ื™ื” ืฉื‘ื•ืจ ืขืœ ื™ื“ื™ ืื™ื–ื” ื’ื‘ืจ ืžืฉื•ื’ืข ืจืง ื›ืžื” ื—ื•ื“ืฉื™ื ืžืื•ื—ืจ ื™ื•ืชืจ.) ื‘ืœื™ื™ ื ืกืขื” "ืจืง ืขื ื”ืฉืžืœื” ืขืœ ื”ื’ื‘ ืฉืœื”, ืžืขื™ืœ ื›ื‘ื“, ื›ืžื” ื–ื•ื’ื•ืช ืชื—ืชื•ื ื™ื, ื•ืฉืงื™ืช ืงื˜ื ื” ื ื•ืฉืืช ืืช ืžื•ืฆืจื™ ื”ื˜ื•ืืœื˜ื™ืงื” ืฉืœื”".

ื”ืžืกืœื•ืœ ื”ืžื–ืจื—ื™ ืฉืœ ื‘ืœื™ื™ ื“ืจืš ืกืคื™ื ื•ืช ืงื™ื˜ื•ืจ ื•ืจื›ื‘ื•ืช ื”ืชื—ื™ืœ ื‘ื ื™ื• ื’'ืจืกื™, ืขื‘ืจ ืืช ืื ื’ืœื™ื”, ืฆืจืคืช (ืฉื ืคื’ืฉื” ืืช ื–'ื•ืœ ื•ืจืŸ), ืขื“ ื‘ืจื™ื ื“ื™ื–ื™, ืื™ื˜ืœื™ื”, ื“ืจืš ืชืขืœืช ืกื•ืืฅ, ืกืจื™ ืœื ืงื”, ืžืœื–ื™ื”, ืกื™ื ื’ืคื•ืจ, ื”ื•ื ื’ ืงื•ื ื’, ืกื™ืŸ ื•ื™ืคืŸ ืœืคื ื™ ื”ื ื—ื™ืชื” ืขืœ ืื“ืžืช ืืจื”"ื‘ ื‘ืกืŸ ืคืจื ืกื™ืกืงื• ื• ื”ืฉืœืžืช ื”ื ืกื™ืขื” ื‘ืจื›ื‘ืช ืคืจื˜ื™ืช ืฉื›ืจ ื‘ื—ื–ืจื” ืœื ื™ื• ื’ 'ืจื–ื™.

ืœื—ืงื•ืช ืื•ืชื”: ื”ื™ื‘ืฉืช, ื˜ื™ื•ืœื™ื ืžืกื‘ื™ื‘ ืœืขื•ืœื ื ื•ื—ื™ื ื™ื•ืชืจ ื‘ื™ืžื™ื ืืœื”, ืื‘ืœ ื–ื” ืœื ืื•ืžืจ ืฉื”ื ืœื ืฉืืคืชื ื™ื ื•ืžืกืคืงื™ื.

ื“ืจื‘ืœื” ืžืจืคื™

ืขื ื–ืืช ืงืฉื” ืœื“ืžื™ื™ืŸ ืขื›ืฉื™ื•, ื“ืจื‘ืœื” ืžืจืคื™ ื”ื“ื•ื•ืฉ ื‘ื“ืจื›ื” ื“ืจืš ืืคื’ื ื™ืกื˜ืŸ. ืชืžื•ื ื” ืฉืœ ืžื™ื›ืœ ืคืจื“ื“ืœืืงื™ / ืžื•ืžื ื˜ / ื’ื˜ื™.

ื”ืจืคืชืงืื•ืช ืจืื•ื™ ืœืฆื™ื•ืŸ: ื˜ื™ื•ืœ ืื•ืคื ื™ื™ื ื ืชืžืš ืขืฆืžื™ืช ืžืื™ืจืœื ื“ ืœื”ื•ื“ื• ื‘ืฉื ืช 1963.

ืžืจืคื™ ื”ืชื—ื™ืœ ืžื” ื™ื”ื™ื” ืขืฉืจื•ืช ืฉื ื™ื ืฉืœ ื”ืจืคืชืงื” ื‘ืœืชื™ ื ืœืื” ื ืกื™ืขื” ื•ื›ืชื™ื‘ื” ืขื ื–ื” ืžื•ื ืข ื“ื•ื•ืฉืช ื”ื—ื™ืคื•ืฉ, ืืฉืจ ืœืงื— ืื•ืชื” ื“ืจืš ื”ืฉื™ื ื™ื™ื ืฉืœ ืื™ืจื•ืคื” ื‘ื—ื•ืจืฃ ืงืฉื” ื‘ืžื™ื•ื—ื“, ื•ืื—ืจื™ื• ืื™ืจืืŸ, ืืคื’ื ื™ืกื˜ืŸ ื•ืคืงื™ืกื˜ืŸ. ื—ืžื•ืฉื™ื ื‘ืื˜ื™ืžื•ืช ื›ืžืขื˜ ืœืื™-ื ื•ื—ื•ืช, ื”ืชืขืœืžื•ืช ืžื‘ื™ื˜ื—ื•ืŸ ืื™ืฉื™ ื•ืืงื“ื— 25. ืฉื”ืฉืชืžืฉื• ื‘ื• ื›ื“ื™ ืœื”ื“ื•ืฃ ื–ืื‘ื™ื ืจืขื‘ื™ื ื‘ื‘ื•ืœื’ืจื™ื” ื•"ื›ื•ืจื“ื™ื ื–ื•ืขืžื™ื ื‘ืคืจืก", ื”ืฉื™ื’ื” ืืช ืžื˜ืจืชื” ื‘ืจื•ื‘ื” ืœืœื ืคื’ืข ื•ื›ืชื‘ื” ืขืœ ื”ื”ืจืคืชืงื” ื‘ื–ื›ืจื•ื ื•ืช ื”ื˜ื™ื” ืžืœืื”: ืื™ืจืœื ื“ ืœื”ื•ื“ื• ืขื ืื•ืคื ื™ื™ื.

ืœื—ืงื•ืช ืื•ืชื”: ื ืกื™ืขื” ืขืœ ืื•ืคื ื™ื™ื ื”ื™ื ื“ืจืš ื‘ื˜ื•ื—ื” ื›ื“ื™ ืœืงื‘ืœ ืžื‘ื˜ ืื™ื ื˜ื™ืžื™ ื™ื•ืชืจ ืขืœ ื™ืขื“ื™ื ื•ืชืจื‘ื•ื™ื•ืช.

ืœื™ื™ืฃ Pettersen ื”ื•ื ืกื•ืคืจ ืœื•ื ืœื™ ืคืœืื ื˜, ืกื•ืคืจ ื ืกื™ืขื•ืช ืขืฆืžืื™ polyglot. ื”ื•ื ื‘ื™ืงืจ 51 ืžื“ื™ื ื•ืช (ืขื“ ื›ื”) ื•ื”ื•ื ื ื™ืชืŸ ืœืžืฆื•ื @ Leifpettersen.

ืฉืชืฃ:

ื“ืคื™ื ื“ื•ืžื™ื

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