ื’ืœื” ืืช ื”ื”ื™ืกื˜ื•ืจื™ื” ืฉืœ ืคื ืžื”

ื’ืœื” ืืช ื”ื”ื™ืกื˜ื•ืจื™ื” ืฉืœ ืคื ืžื”

ืคื ืžื” ื”ื™ื ืœื ืจืง ืขืœ ื›ื™ืกื•ื™ ืจืืฉ ื˜ืจื•ืคื™ ื•ืงื™ืฆื•ืจ ื”ื“ืจืš ื”ื’ื“ื•ืœ ื‘ืขื•ืœื - ื”ื’'ื•ื ื’ืœื™ื ืฉืœื” ื•ื”ื ืžืœื™ื ื”ืงื•ืœื•ื ื™ืืœื™ื™ื ื”ืžืชืคื•ืจืจื™ื ืžืกืชื™ืจื™ื ื”ื™ืกื˜ื•ืจื™ื” ืฉืœ ื–ื”ื‘ ื•ืฉื•ื“ ืขืœ ืจืืฉื™ ื”ืกืคืจื“ื™ื. ืœื—ืงื•ืจ ืืช ื”ื”ื™ืกื˜ื•ืจื™ื” swashbuckling ืฉืœ ืคื ืžื” ื•ืืช ื—ื™ื•ืช ื”ื‘ืจ ืขืฉื™ืจ ืขื ืœื•ื ืœื™ ืคืœืื ื˜ ืžื’ื–ื™ืŸ.

ื–ื” ืงืฆืช ืžืคื—ื™ื“ ื‘ื’'ื•ื ื’ืœ, ืžื™ื•ื–ืข ื•ื˜ื—ื•ื‘, ืขื ื ื”ืžื•ืช ืขืžื•ืงื•ืช ืฉืœ ืจืขืžื™ื ืฉื”ื•ืกื™ืคื• ืžื’ืข ืชื™ืื˜ืจืœื™ ืฉืœ ืื™ื•ื ืืœ ืฉื‘ื™ืœ ืคืจื“ื™ ื™ืฉืŸ ื•ืฆืœื•ืœ. ืžืกื•ืžื ืช ืขืœ ื™ื“ื™ ืขืฆื™ ื“ืงืœ ื•ืชื ื”ืžื˜ืขืŸ ืฉืœ ืขืฅ ืงื•ื™ืคื• ืขื ืงื™, ื”ืกืฆื ื” ื™ื›ื•ืœื” ืœื”ื™ื•ืช ืชื—ืจื™ื˜ ื‘ืกืคืจ ื™ืฉืŸ ื•ื™ืฉืŸ. ื›ืœ ืžื” ืฉืืชื” ืฆืจื™ืš ื–ื” ืขื‘ื•ืจ ืื—ื“ ืžืื•ืชื ืžืื™ื™ืจื™ื ื’ื“ื•ืœื™ื ืฉืœ ื”ืžืื” ื” -16 ืœืฆื™ื™ืจ ื›ืžื” ืžืŸ ื”ืคื™ืจืื˜ื™ื ื”ืžืกื—ืจื™ ืฉืœื”ื ืื• ื›ืžื” ื›ื•ื‘ืฉื™ื ื™ื”ื™ืจื™ื ื‘ืงืกื“ื•ืช ืžืฉื•ืฉืœื•ืช ื•ืงื•ื™ืจืืก ืžื‘ืจื™ืง, ื•ืืชื” ืฆืจื™ืš ืืช ืขืฆืžืš ืื™ื•ืจ ืื™ื•ืจ ื›ื™ืกื•ื™ ืขื‘ื•ืจ ื ื”ื‘ืขืœื™ื ืฉืœ ื”ื™ืœื“ ืกื™ืคื•ืจ ืฉืœ ื ื—ืฉื™ื, ื’ 'ื•ื ื’ืœื™ื ื•ืื™ื‘ื“ ืื•ืฆืจ ื”ืื™ื ืงืŸ. ื•ื’ื ืืชื” ื™ื›ื•ืœ. ืื—ืจื™ ื”ื›ืœ, ื–ื”ื• ื”ื“ื‘ืจ ื”ืืžื™ืชื™: ืงื˜ืข ืฉืœ ืงื™ืœื•ืžื˜ืจ ื•ื—ืฆื™ ืžืงืืžื™ื ื• ื“ื” ืงืจื•ืก ื”ื™ืฉืŸ, ืฉื‘ื™ืœ ื”ืื•ืฆืจื•ืช ื”ืกืคืจื“ื™ ื”ืื’ื“ื™ ืขืœ ืคื ื™ ื”ืื™ืกื˜ืžื•ืก ืฉืœ ืคื ืžื”, ื•ืชืคืื•ืจื” ืœืื—ื“ ืžืกื™ืคื•ืจื™ื• ื”ืžื“ื”ื™ืžื™ื ื‘ื™ื•ืชืจ ืฉืœ ืขื™ื“ืŸ ื”ื–ื”ื‘ ืฉืœ ืคื™ืจืื˜ื™ื•ืช: ื”ืฉืง ืฉืœ ืคื ืžื” ืกื™ื˜ื™ ืขืœ ื™ื“ื™ ื”ืคื™ืจืื˜ ื”ื ืจื™ ืžื•ืจื’ืŸ ื‘ืฉื ืช 1671.

ื”ืฉืง ืฉืœ ืคื ืžื” ืกื™ื˜ื™

ื–ื” ืœื ื ืจืื” ืืคืฉืจื™ ืืคื™ืœื• ื”ืงืคื˜ืŸ ืคื™ืจืื˜ ื”ืงืฉื™ื ื‘ื™ื•ืชืจ ืœื”ื•ื‘ื™ืœ ืืช ื”ืœื”ืงื” ืฉืœื• ืฉืœ ื’ื–ืจ ื”ื“ื™ืŸ ื“ืจืš ืฉื‘ืขื™ื ืงื™ืœื•ืžื˜ืจื™ื ืฉืœ ื”ื’ 'ื•ื ื’ืœ pestilential ื•ืœื”ืฉื™ืง ื”ืชืงืคื” ืžื•ืฆืœื—ืช ืขืœ ืื—ื“ ื”ืขืฉื™ืจื™ื ื‘ื™ื•ืชืจ ื‘ืขื•ืœื ืฉืœ ืกืคืจื“ ืื•ืฆืจ ื ืžืœื™ ื”ืขื•ืœื. ืื‘ืœ ื‘- 1671 "ื”ืคืจื˜ื™ื ืจ" (ืฆืขื“ ื—ืฉื•ื‘ ื‘ืกื•ืœื ื”ื—ื‘ืจืชื™ ืžืคื™ืจืื˜ ืžืฉื•ืชืฃ) ืขืฉื” ืื™ื•ื ื˜ื•ื‘, ื”ืจื›ื™ื‘ ืืจืžื“ื” ืฉืœ 38 ืกืคื™ื ื•ืช ืžืขืœ ื”ืื™ ื”ืคื™ืจืื˜ื™ ืฉืœ ื”ื™ืกืคื ื™ื•ืœื” ื•ื’ื™ื™ืก ื™ื•ืชืจ ืž -2000 ืฉื•ื“ื“ื™ื ืื›ื–ืจื™ื™ื ืœืžื˜ืจื” - ืื ื’ืœื™ืช, ืฆืจืคืชื™ืช, ื”ื•ืœื ื“ื™ืช, ื›ืžืขื˜ ื›ืœ ืคื™ืจืื˜ ื‘ืื™ื™ื ื”ืงืจื™ื‘ื™ื™ื. ื”ื™ืขื“ ืฉืœื”ื ื”ื™ื” ื”ื—ื•ืฃ ื”ื™ื‘ืฉืชื™ ื”ืขืฉื™ืจ ืฉืœ ื”ืื™ืžืคืจื™ื” ื”ืกืคืจื“ื™ืช ื‘ืืžืจื™ืงื”.

ื›ืฉื”ื ืฉื•ื‘ืจื™ื ืฉื•ื‘ืœ ืฉืœ ืฉื‘ื™ืœ ืœืื•ืจืš ื”ื“ืจืš, ืคื™ืจืื˜ื™ื ืคื™ืจืงื• ืืช ื”ืžื‘ืฆืจ ื‘ืกืŸ ืœื•ืจื ืฆื•, ื‘ื—ื•ืฃ ื”ืงืจื™ื‘ื™ ืฉืœ ืคื ืžื”. ืžืฉื ื”ื ืคื ื• ืืœ ื”ื™ื‘ืฉื”, ื‘ืžืขืœื” ื”ื ื”ืจ ืฆ'ืื’ืจืก, ืœืื•ืจืš ืฉื‘ื™ืœ ื”ื’'ื•ื ื’ืœ ื”ื™ืฉืŸ ื”ืžืจื•ืฆืฃ, ืœืžืงื•ื ืฉื‘ื• ืฉื›ื‘ื” ืคื ืžื” ืกื™ื˜ื™, ื‘ื”ืžืชื ื” ืžืคื•ืืจืช, ืžืจื•ื—ืงืช ืžืŸ ื”ืฆื“ ื”ืฉืงื˜. ื‘ื›ืœ ืฉื ื”, ืื•ืฆืจื•ืช ืื™ื ืงืืŸ ื ื”ื“ืจื™ื ื™ื’ื™ืขื• ืœื ืžืœ ื–ื” - ื˜ื•ื ื•ืช ืฉืœ ื–ื”ื‘ ื•ืื‘ื ื™ื ื™ืงืจื•ืช ืžืคืจื•, ื›ืกืฃ ืžื”ืžื›ืจื•ืช ื”ืื’ื“ื™ื™ื ื‘ืคื•ื˜ื•ืกื™ - ืฉื ื”ื ื ืืกืคื• ืœืคื ื™ ืฉื ืฉืœื—ื• ืœืกืคืจื“. ื”ื™ื” ื›ืืŸ ืคืจืก ืฉืจืื•ื™ ืœื”ืฉืชืœื˜ ืขืœื™ื•, ืื• ืœืคื—ื•ืช ื”ื™ื” ื–ื” ืื™ืœื• ืœื ื”ื™ื” ืžื•ืฉืœ ื”ืžื•ืฉืœ, ื›ื™ ื”ืคื™ืจืื˜ื™ื ื”ื™ื• ื‘ื“ืจื›ื.

ื›ืคื™ ืฉื”ื™ื”, ืจื•ื‘ ื”ื—ื•ืžืจ ื”ื˜ื•ื‘ ื”ื™ื” ืืจื•ื– ืขืœ ื’ื‘ื™ ืกืคื™ื ื•ืช, ื›ื“ื™ ืœื”ื™ื•ืช ืžื•ืกืชืจื™ื ื‘ืื™ืกืœืก ื“ื” ืœืืก ืคืจืœืืก, ืืจื›ื™ืคืœื’ ื›ืžื• ืชื›ืฉื™ื˜ ืฉืœ 220 ืื™ื™ื ื˜ืจื•ืคื™ื™ื, 30 ืžื™ื™ืœื™ื ื‘ืžืคืจืฅ ืคื ืžื”, ืฉื‘ื• ืื–ืจื—ื™ื ืขืฉื™ืจื™ื ื‘ื™ื•ืชืจ ืฉืœ ืคื ืžื” ืกื™ื˜ื™ - ืžื™ ื™ื›ื•ืœ ืœื”ืจืฉื•ืช ืœืขืฆืžื• ืืช ืฉื™ืขื•ืจื™ ื”ืคืื ื™ืงื” ื”ื˜ืขื•ื ื™ื ืœืฆืืช ืœืฉื - ืžืฆืื• ืžืงืœื˜ ื‘ืขืฆืžื. ื”ืคื™ืจืื˜ื™ื ืคื’ืขื• ืขื ืขืœื•ืช ื”ืฉื—ืจ, ื‘- 28 ื‘ื™ื ื•ืืจ 1671, ืฉื”ื’ื™ื—ื• ืžืŸ ื”ื’'ื•ื ื’ืœ ื•ืžื™ืœืื• ื‘ืžื”ื™ืจื•ืช ืืช ืžื’ื™ื ื™ ื”ืขื™ืจ. ืื•ืจื’ื™ ื—ื•ื“ืฉ ืฉืœ ืืฉ, ืขื™ื ื•ื™ื™ื ื•ื‘ื–ื‘ื•ื– ื ืขืœืžื• ืœืคื ื™ ืกื•ืฃ ืกื•ืฃ, ื›ืžื• ืืจื‘ื” ืžื’ื•ื“ืœืช, ื™ืฆืื• ื”ืžื•ื ื™ ื”ืคื™ืจืื˜ื™ื, ื ื•ืฉืื™ื ืืช ื’ื‘ื ื”ืฉืœืœ ืœืื•ืจืš ื”ืฉื‘ื™ืœ ืืœ ื”ืžืงื•ื ืฉื‘ื• ื”ืžืชื™ื ื• ืฆื™ื™ื”ื ืขืœ ื”ื—ื•ืฃ ื”ืงืจื™ื‘ื™, ื•ื”ื•ืชื™ืจื• ืืช ืื–ืจื—ื™ื” ื”ืžื‘ื•ื”ืœื™ื ืฉืœ ืคื ืžื” ืกื™ื˜ื™ ืœืฉื•ื˜ื˜ ื‘ื™ืŸ ื—ื•ืจื‘ื•ืช ืฉืœ ืžื” ืฉื”ื™ื” ืคืขื ื‘ื™ืชื.

ืคื ืžื” ื”ื™ื•ื

ื”ืจื‘ื” ืขื•ื ื•ืช ื’ืฉื•ืžื•ืช ื”ื’ื™ืขื• ื•ื”ืœื›ื• ืขืœ ื”ืงืืžื™ื ื• ื“ื” ืงืจื•ืก ื”ื™ืฉืŸ ืžืื– ืžื•ืจื’ืŸ ืขื‘ืจ ื‘ื“ืจืš ื–ื•. ื‘ืขื•ื“ ื”ื’ 'ื•ื ื’ืœ ื ืฉืืจ ืžืจื•ืฉืข ื›ืชืžื™ื“, ืขื›ืฉื™ื• ื–ื” ื—ืœืง ื”ืคืืจืง ื”ืœืื•ืžื™ Soberanía, ื‘ืžื“ื‘ืจ ืจื—ื‘ ื™ื•ืชืจ ื™ื“ื•ืข ื™ื•ืชืจ ืขื‘ื•ืจ ื ื•ืฆื•ืช ืฉื–ื™ืฃ, ืขื ืฉื™ื ื”ืขื•ืœื 525 ืžื™ื ื™ื ืฉืœ ืฆื™ืคื•ืจ ื ืจืฉืžื” ื‘ื™ื•ื ืื—ื“. ื‘ืžืงื•ื ืฉื‘ื• ื”ืชื’ื•ืจืจื• ืžื•ืจื’ืŸ ื•ืื ืฉื™ื• ื‘ืื•ืžืœืœื•ืช ืฉืœ ื‘ื•ืฅ ื•ื™ืชื•ืฉื™ื, ืฉื‘ื”ื ื”ืชื•ื•ืื™ ืคื’ืฉ ืืช ื ื”ืจ ืฆ'ืื’ืจืก, ืžื˜ื™ื™ืœื™ื ืžื•ื“ืจื ื™ื™ื ื ืžืฆืื™ื ื‘ื˜ื•ื•ื— ืžื•ืกืงื˜ ืฉืœ ืืชืจ ื ื•ืคืฉ ืืงื•ืœื•ื’ื™ ื‘ืขืœ ื—ืžื™ืฉื” ื›ื•ื›ื‘ื™ื ืื• ื ืกื™ืขื” ืงืœื” ืฉืœ ื—ืฆื™ ืฉืขื” ื—ื–ืจื” ืœื‘ืชื™ ื”ืžืœื•ืŸ, ืœื‘ืชื™ ื”ืงืคื” ื•ืœื‘ืชื™ ื”ืงืคื” ื’'ืื– ื‘ Casco Viejo, ืจื•ื‘ืข ืงื•ืœื•ื ื™ืืœื™ ืžืชืคื•ืจืจ ืฉืœ ืคื ืžื” ืกื™ื˜ื™ - ืฉื‘ื• ื”ื ืขื“ื™ื™ืŸ ืœื ื™ืฉืจืช ืงืคื˜ืŸ ืžื•ืจื’ืŸ ืจื•ื.

ืื‘ืœ ื‘ืฉื•ื ืžืงื•ื ื”ื ื”ืฉื™ื ื•ื™ื™ื ื‘ื•ืœื˜ืช ื™ื•ืชืจ ืžืืฉืจ ืœืื•ืจืš ื ื”ืจ Chagres ืขืฆืžื•, ืกื›ืจ ื‘ืฉื ืช 1913 ื›ื“ื™ ืœื™ืฆื•ืจ ืื’ื Gatun, ื‘ืžืกื’ืจืช ืคืจื•ื™ืงื˜ ืชืขืœืช ืคื ืžื”. ื‘ 164 ืžื™ื™ืœื™ื ืจื‘ื•ืขื™ื, ื”ืื’ื ื”ื™ื” ื”ื’ื“ื•ืœ ื‘ื™ื•ืชืจ ื‘ืขื•ืœื ืžืขืฉื” ื™ื“ื™ ืื“ื ื’ื•ืฃ ืฉืœ ืžื™ื ื›ืืฉืจ ื”ื•ื ื ื•ืฆืจ. ื”ืจื‘ื” ืžื”ืžืกืœื•ืœ ืฉืžื•ืจื’ืŸ ืขื•ืงื‘ ืื—ืจื™ื• ืฉืงื•ืข ืขื›ืฉื™ื•. ื›ื“ื™ ืœื“ืจื•ืš ืขืœ ืฉื‘ื™ืœ ืคื™ืจืื˜ ื“ืจืš ืคื ืžื” ื”ืžื•ื“ืจื ื™ืช, ืืชื” ืฆืจื™ืš ืœื”ืขื‘ื™ืจ ืืช ื”ืชืขืœื”. ื™ื•ืชืจ ืžืžื™ืœื™ื•ืŸ ืกืคื™ื ื•ืช ืขื‘ืจื• ืืช ืงื™ืฆื•ืจ ื”ื“ืจืš ื”ื™ื•ืงืจืชื™ ื‘ื™ื•ืชืจ ื‘ืขื•ืœื ืžืื– ืฉื ืคืชื—ื” ื‘ -1914, ื•ืžืžืชื™ื ื” ืœื”ื•ืกื™ืฃ ืื•ืชื• ืœื‘ื•ืงืจ ื”ืจื•ืขื ื”ื–ื” ื”ื™ื ืกืคื™ื ืช ืชื™ื™ืจื™ื ื‘ืฉื "ื”ืžืœื›ื” ื”ืฉืงื˜", ืกื™ืคื•ื ื™ื” ื‘ื”ื™ืจื™ื ืขื ืชื™ื™ืจื™ื ื‘ื›ื•ื‘ืขื™ ืคื ืžื” ืœืžื–ื›ืจืช, ื‘ืชืฆืœื•ืžื™ื ื•ื‘ื”ืกืชื›ืœื•ืช ืขืœ ืคื ื™ ื”ืžื™ื ื‘ืงื• ื”ืจืงื™ืข ื”ืžื ืฆื ืฅ ืฉืœ ืคื ืžื” ืกื™ื˜ื™, ืฉื ืจืื” ื™ื•ืชืจ ื›ืžื• ืกื™ื ื’ืคื•ืจ ืื• ืžื™ืืžื™ ืžืืฉืจ ื ืžืœ ื”ื”ืจืคืชืงืื•ืช ื”ืžื”ื‘ื™ืœ ืฉืœ ื”ื“ืžื™ื•ืŸ ื”ืขืžืžื™.

ื‘ืขื‘ืจ, ื›ืžืขื˜ ื‘ืžื™ืœื” ืฉืœ ืกื›ื ื” ื–ื•ื”ืจืช, ืคื ืžื” ืกื™ื˜ื™ ืคืจื—ื” ืœืื—ืช ื”ืขืจื™ื ื”ืงื•ืกืžื•ืคื•ืœื™ื˜ื™ื•ืช ื‘ื™ื•ืชืจ ื‘ืืžืจื™ืงื” ื”ืœื˜ื™ื ื™ืช, ื‘ื™ืจื” ื‘ื ืงืื™ืช ื ื•ืฆืฆืช, ื•ืขื™ืจ ื“ื‘ืฉ ืœืื™ืœื™ ื ื“ืœ"ืŸ, ืžืคืชื—ื™ ื ื›ืกื™ื ื•ืคื ืกื™ื•ื ืจื™ื ืืžืจื™ืงืื™ื ื‘ืขืœื™ ืขืงื‘ ื˜ื•ื‘, ื”ืžื—ืคืฉื™ื ืฉืžืฉ ื˜ืจื•ืคื™ืช, ืื•ืจื— ื—ื™ื™ื expatriate ืžืงื•ื ื‘ื˜ื•ื— ื›ื“ื™ ืขื’ื™ื ื” ื™ืื›ื˜ื•ืช ืฉืœื”ื ื”ืจื—ืง ื”ื•ืจื™ืงื ื™ื ื›ื™ ืกื•ื‘ืœ ืืช ื”ืจื’ื™ืœ ืœืจื•ืฅ ืžืงืœื˜ื™ ืžืก ื”ืงืจื™ื‘ื™.

ื‘ื ื•ื™ ืขืœ ื—ื•ืชืš ื•ื’ื–ืœ

ื‘ืฉื›ื•ื ื” ื”ืงื•ืœื•ื ื™ืืœื™ืช ื”ื™ืฉื ื” ืฉืœ ืคื ืžื” ืกื™ื˜ื™ ืื ื™ ืžื•ืฆืืช ืืช ืขืฆืžื™ ื‘ืื•ืœื ื”ืงื‘ื•ืจื” ืฉืœ ื”ื›ื ืกื™ื™ื” ืฉืœ ืกื ื˜ ื’'ื•ื–ืฃ, ืฉืžื–ื‘ื—ื• ื”ืžื”ื•ื“ืจ ืฉืœ ืžื”ื’ื•ื ื™ ื”ืžื•ื–ื”ื‘ ืฉืจื“ ืืช ืžืฆื•ืจ ื”ืคื™ืจืื˜ื™ื ืขืœ ื™ื“ื™ ื›ืš ืฉื ื“ื‘ืง ื‘ื‘ื•ืฅ ื›ื“ื™ ืœื”ื™ืจืื•ืช ื›ืื™ืœื• ื›ื‘ืจ ื ื’ื–ืœ ืžืžื ื• ื–ื”ื‘. ื‘ืžื” ืฉื›ื ืจืื” ื”ื™ื” ืžืฉื—ืง ื™ืคื” ื›ืžื• ื›ืœ ืฆื“ ื–ื” ืฉืœ ืื•ืกืงืจ, ื”ื›ื•ืžืจ ื‘ืื•ืชื” ืขืช ืœื ืจืง ืฉื›ื ืข ืืช ืžื•ืจื’ืŸ ืฉืœื ื ื•ืชืจ ืœื• ื“ื‘ืจ ืœื’ื ื•ื‘ ื‘ื›ื ืกื™ื™ื” ืฉืœื•, ืื‘ืœ, ืœืžืจื•ืช ื–ืืช, ืงืฉื•ื— ืœืชื•ืจืžื™ื ืงืฆืช ื–ื”ื‘ ืขื‘ื•ืจ ืฉื™ืคื•ืฅ ืฉืœื”. ื‘ืื•ืชื” ืื’ื“ื” ื™ืฉ โ€‹โ€‹ืžื•ืจื’ืŸ ืžื‘ื•ืœื‘ืœ ื•ืกืคืงื ื™ ืฉืžืกืจ ืืช ืชืจื•ืžืชื• ื‘ืžื™ืœื™ื: "ื™ืฉ ืœื™ ื”ืจื’ืฉื” ืฉืืชื” ื™ื•ืชืจ ืคื™ืจืื˜ ืฉืื ื™." ืื•ืœื™ ื”ื•ื ื”ื™ื”. ื›ื•ืœื ื”ื™ื• ืฉื•ื“ื“ื™ ื™ื ื‘ื™ืžื™ื ื”ื”ื. ืื—ืจื™ ื›ื›ืœื•ืช ื”ื›ืœ, ืคื ืžื” ืขืฆืžื” ื ื‘ื ืชื” ืขืœ ื’ื“ืจื•ืช ื•ืขืœ ื’ื–ืœ.

ืจื•ืฃ ืกืžื™ืช 'ื”ื•ื ืกื•ืคืจ ื•ืกื•ืคืจ ื ืกื™ืขื•ืช, ื•ื“ื™ื•ื•ื— ืขืœ ืงืžืจื•ืŸ ื•ืื™ื™ ืงื•ืง ืœื•ื ืœื™ ืคืœืื ื˜.

ืžืืžืจ ื–ื” ืคื•ืจืกื ืœืจืืฉื•ื ื” ื‘ืžืจืฅ 2013 ื•ืจืขื ืŸ ื‘ืื•ื’ื•ืกื˜ 2017.

ืฉืชืฃ:

ื“ืคื™ื ื“ื•ืžื™ื

add
close

ื‘ืกื•ืฃ ื”ืฉื‘ื•ืข ื”ื‘ื:

ื”ืžืงื•ืžื•ืช ื”ื˜ื•ื‘ื™ื ื‘ื™ื•ืชืจ

ื’ื•ืื™ื™ืจ ืžื—ื–ื™ืจื” ืืช ื—ื™ื•ื‘ื™ื ืœื‘ื™ื˜ื•ืœื”

ื”ืžืงื•ืžื•ืช ื”ื˜ื•ื‘ื™ื ื‘ื™ื•ืชืจ

Kasol: ื”ื›ืœ ืขืœ ืงืจืžื™ื ื•ื‘ืชื™ ืงืคื”