ืื›ื™ืœื” ื‘ืžื™ืื ืžืจ (ื‘ื•ืจืžื”): ืžื‘ื•ื ืœืื•ื›ืœ ื‘ื•ืจืžื–ื™

ืื›ื™ืœื” ื‘ืžื™ืื ืžืจ (ื‘ื•ืจืžื”): ืžื‘ื•ื ืœืื•ื›ืœ ื‘ื•ืจืžื–ื™

ื”ืื•ื›ืœ ื”ื‘ื•ืจืžื–ื™ ืกื•ื‘ืœ ืžืจืืค ืจืข - ืจืืค ืจืข ืœื ืžื•ืฆื“ืง, ืœื“ืขืชื ื•. ื‘ืขื•ื“ ื”ืื•ื›ืœ ื‘ื•ืจืžื–ื™ ื™ื›ื•ืœ ืœื”ื™ื•ืช ืงืฆืช ืฉืžื ื•ื ื™, ื•ื—ืกืจืช ืืช ื”ืžื’ื•ื•ืŸ ื•ืืช ื”ืชื‘ืœื™ื ื™ื ืฉืจื™ืจื™ ืฉืœ ื”ืžื˜ื‘ื— ื‘ืชืื™ืœื ื“ ื”ืฉื›ื ื”, ืขื ืงืฆืช ืขืฆื” ื•ื™ื“ืข ืจืงืข ืื ื• ื‘ื˜ื•ื—ื™ื ืฉืชื—ื–ืจื• ืžืžื™ืื ืžืจ ืฉื™ืฉ ื˜ืขื ื›ืžื” ืืจื•ื—ื•ืช ื˜ืขื™ืžื•ืช ื‘ืืžืช ื‘ืœืชื™ ื ืฉื›ื—.

ืืจื•ื—ื” ื‘ื•ืจืžื–ื™ืช

T'emmìn (ืื•ืจื–), ื›ืชื•ื‘ ื’ื ื‘ืฉื htamin, ื”ื•ื ื”ืœื™ื‘ื” ืฉืœ ื›ืœ ืืจื•ื—ื” ื‘ื•ืจืžื–ื™ืช. ืจื™ื™ืก ืžื•ื’ืฉ ืขื ืžื’ื•ื•ืŸ ืจื—ื‘ ืฉืœ ืžืื›ืœื™ื ื”ืžืืคื™ื™ื ื™ื ืžื˜ื‘ื— ื‘ื•ืจืžื–ื™, ืชืขืจื•ื‘ืช ื™ื™ื—ื•ื“ื™ืช ืฉืœ ื”ืฉืคืขื•ืช ื‘ื•ืจืžื–ื™ื•ืช, ืžื•ืŸ, ื”ื•ื“ื™ ื•ืกื™ื ื™. ืžืื›ืœื™ื ืืœื” ืžืฉืชืžืฉื™ื ื‘ืžื’ื•ื•ืŸ ืฉืœ ืžืจื›ื™ื‘ื™ื ืžืงื•ืžื™ื™ื, ื‘ืขื™ืงืจ ืฆืžื—ื™ื™ื ื•ืคื™ืจื•ืช ื™ื, ื•ื›ืžื• ื‘ืžื˜ื‘ื—ื™ื ืื—ืจื™ื ืฉืœ ื“ืจื•ื ืžื–ืจื— ืืกื™ื”, ื ืขืฉื” ืžืืžืฅ ืœืื–ืŸ ื‘ื™ืŸ ืืจื‘ืขืช ื”ื˜ืขืžื™ื ื”ืขื™ืงืจื™ื™ื: ื—ืžื•ืฅ, ืžืœื•ื—, ื—ืจื™ืฃ ื•ืžืจื™ืจ.

ืœืžืจื•ืช ื™ืกื•ื“ื•ืช ืืœื” ื”ื ืคืฉื•ื˜ื™ื ื™ื—ืกื™ืช, ืื—ืช ื”ื”ื ืื•ืช ืฉืœ ืื›ื™ืœืช ืืจื•ื—ื” ื‘ื•ืจืžื–ื™ืช ืื•ืชื ื˜ื™ ื”ื•ื ืžื’ื•ื•ืŸ ืขืฆื•ื ืฉืœ ืžื ื•ืช ื‘ืกื‘ื™ื‘ื” ืื—ืช, ืžืฉื”ื• ืžืชื—ืจื” ืืคื™ืœื• ืื•ื›ืœ ืชืื™ืœื ื“ื™. ืขื ื”ื’ืขืชื ืœื›ืœ ืžื™ืื ืžื” ืกืื” ืชืื•ืง ืกืื™ื™ืŸ (ืžืกืขื“ื” ื‘ื•ืจืžื–ื™ืช), ื•ืœืื—ืจ ืฉื ื‘ื—ืจื• ืงืืจื™, ืžืื›ืœ ืžื˜ื•ื’ืŸ ืื• ืกืœื˜, ืฉื•ืจื” ืฉืœ ืžื ื•ืช ื‘ืฆื“ ื™ื‘ื•ืื• ื‘ืขืงื‘ื•ืชื™ื•. ืื—ื“ ื”ื›ืœื™ื ื”ืืœื” ื”ื•ื ืชืžื™ื“ ืžืจืง, ืื• ื”ื”ื•ื“ื™ ืžื•ืฉืคืข peh-hen-ye (ืžืจืง ืขื“ืฉื™ื, ืื• dhal), ืžืฉื•ื‘ืฅ ื—ืชื™ื›ื•ืช ืฉืœ ื™ืจืงื•ืช, ืื• ืขืœื” ืขืœื™ื ื˜ืืจื˜ ื”ื™ื™-ื’'ื• (ืžืจืง ื—ืžื•ืฅ). ืžื’ืฉ ืฉืœ ื™ืจืงื•ืช ื˜ืจื™ื™ื ื•ืžืจื•ืคื“ื™ื ื•ืขืฉื‘ื™ ืชื™ื‘ื•ืœ ื”ื•ื ืžื ื” ื ื•ืกืคืช ื‘ืฆื“; ื”ื ืื›ืœื• ืขื ืžื˜ื‘ืœื™ื ืฉื•ื ื™ื, ื”ื—ืœ ืืชื” (ืžื™ืžื™, ืžื˜ื‘ืœ ื“ื’ื™ื) ื‘ืืœืืฆ'ืื ื’ (ืฉื™ืœื•ื‘ ื™ื‘ืฉ, ื—ืจื™ืฃ ืฉืœ ืฆ'ื™ืœื™, ืฉื•ื ื•ืฉืจื™ืžืคืก ืžื™ื•ื‘ืฉ ื‘ืฉืžืŸ). ืชื•ืกืคื•ืช ื ื•ืกืคื•ืช ืฉืœ ื™ืจืงื•ืช, ืชื” ื™ืจื•ืง ืœืœื ื”ื’ื‘ืœื”, ืงื™ื ื•ื— ืฉืœ ืขืœื™ ืชื” ื›ื‘ื•ืฉื™ื ื•ื’ื•ืฉื™ ื’'ืื’ืจื™ (ืกื•ื›ืจ ื“ืงืœื™ื) ื›ืœื•ืœื™ื ื’ื ื‘ื“ืจืš ื›ืœืœ.

ืงืืจื™ ืงื‘ืข

ืื•ืจื–, ืงืืจื™ ื•ืฆื“ื“ื™ื, ืขืœ ื™ื“ื™ ืขื•ืœื ืงืกื•ื. ืจื™ืฉื™ื•ืŸ Creative Commons BY-SA.

ื”ืชืžื—ื•ื™ื•ืช ื‘ื•ืจืžื–ื™ื•ืช

ืื—ื“ ื”ืžืืคื™ื™ื ื™ื ื”ืงื•ืœื™ื ืจื™ื™ื ืฉืœ ืื•ื›ืœ ื‘ื•ืจืžื–ื™ ื”ื•ื ืœืœื ืกืคืง âthouq - ืกืœื˜ื™ื ืงืœื™ื, ืžืชื•ื‘ืœื™ื ื•ืžืชื•ื‘ืœื™ื, ืขื ื™ืจืงื•ืช ื˜ืจื™ื™ื ืื• ืคื™ืจื•ืช ื˜ืจื™ื™ื ืขื ืžื™ืฅ ืœื™ื™ื, ื‘ืฆืœ, ื‘ื•ื˜ื ื™ื, ืื‘ืงืช ื—ื•ืžื•ืก ืงืœื•ื™ื™ื ื•ืคืœืคืœื™ื. ื‘ื™ืŸ ื”ื™ืคื™ื ื‘ื™ื•ืชืจ ื”ื maji-yweq thouq, ืฉื ืขืฉื• ืขื ืขืœื™ ืชืžืจ ืฆืขื™ืจื™ื ืฆืขื™ืจื™ื, ื• shauq-thi dhouq, ืขืฉื” ืขื ืกื•ื’ ืฉืœ ืœื™ืžื•ืŸ ื”ื™ืœื™ื“ื™ื. ืœืžืขืฉื”, ื‘ื•ืจืžื–ื™ ื™ืขืฉื” ื›ืžืขื˜ ื›ืœ ื“ื‘ืจ ืœืชื•ืš ืกืœื˜, ื›ืžื• t'ฤƒmìn dhouq ืกืœื˜ ืžืชื•ื‘ืœ ืฉื ืขืฉื” ืขื ืื•ืจื–, ื• nangyi dhouq, ืกืœื˜ ืขื ืื˜ืจื™ื•ืช ืื•ืจื– ืขื‘ื•ืช, ืœื”ื•ื›ื™ื—.

ื’ื™ืžื•ืจ ืคื•ืคื•ืœืจื™ ืœืืจื•ื—ื•ืช ื‘ื•ืจืžื–ื™ืช, ื•ืื•ืœื™ ื’ื ื”ืฆืœื—ืช ื”ื‘ื•ืจืžื–ื™ืช ื”ื™ื“ื•ืขื” ืœืฉืžืฆื” ื‘ื™ื•ืชืจ leq-p'eq (ืžื™ื•ื‘ืฉ ืœืขืชื™ื ืงืจื•ื‘ื•ืช), ืขืœื™ ืชื” ืžื•ืชืกืกื™ื ื™ืจื•ืงื™ื ืžืขื•ืจื‘ื‘ื™ื ื‘ืฉื™ืœื•ื‘ ืฉืœ ืฉื•ืžืฉื•ื, ืืคื•ื ื” ืžื˜ื•ื’ื ืช, ืฉืจื™ืžืคืก ืžื™ื•ื‘ืฉ, ืฉื•ื ืžื˜ื•ื’ืŸ, ื‘ื•ื˜ื ื™ื ื•ืขื•ื“ ืžืจื›ื™ื‘ื™ื ืคืจื™ืš. ื”ืžืกื” ื”ื“ืœื™ืœื” ืœืžืจืื” ืžืฉืื™ืจื” ื›ืžื” ื–ืจื™ื, ืื‘ืœ ื–ื” ืžืžืฉ ื˜ืขื™ื ื‘ืจื’ืข ืฉืืชื” ืžืงื‘ืœ ืžืขื‘ืจ ืœืžืจืื” ื”ืืงื–ื•ื˜ื™ ืฉืœ ื”ืžืื›ืœ. ื’ืจืกื” ื™ื“ื™ื“ื•ืชื™ืช ื™ื•ืชืจ ืฉืœ ื”ืžื ื” ื”ื™ื leq-p'eq thouq, ืฉื ื”ืชื” ื•ื”ืชืกื•ืกื™ื ื”ืžืฉื•ืœื‘ื™ื ืžืฉื•ืœื‘ื™ื ื‘ืฆื•ืจื” ืฉืœ ืกืœื˜ ืขื ืคืจื•ืกื•ืช ืขื’ื‘ื ื™ื•ืช ื•ื›ืจื•ื‘ ื•ืกื—ื™ื˜ื” ืฉืœ โ€‹โ€‹ืœื™ืžื•ืŸ. ื”ืžื ื” ื”ื™ื ื—ื˜ื™ืฃ ืคื•ืคื•ืœืจื™ ืžื™ืื ืžืจ, ื•ืืช ื”ื’ื‘ืจืช ื”ืงืคืื™ืŸ ืฉืกื•ืคืงื• ืขืœ ื™ื“ื™ ืขืœื™ ื”ืชื” ื”ื•ืคืš ืืช ื”ืžืื›ืœ ืžื•ืขื“ืฃ ืฉืœ ืชืœืžื™ื“ื™ื ืฉืฆืจื™ื›ื™ื ืœื”ื™ืฉืืจ ืขื“ ืžืื•ื—ืจ ืœืœืžื•ื“.

ืกืœื˜ ืขืœื™ ืชื”

Leq-p'eq (ืกืœื˜ ืขืœื” ืขืœื™ื), Bagan, ืขืœ ื™ื“ื™ fabulousfabs. ืจื™ืฉื™ื•ืŸ Creative Commons.

ืžื ื•ืช ืื™ื˜ืจื™ื•ืช ื”ื prized ืขืœ ื™ื“ื™ ื‘ื•ืจืžื–ื™ ื•ื”ื ืื›ืœื• ืœืจื•ื‘ ืœืืจื•ื—ืช ื‘ื•ืงืจ ืื• ื›ืžื• ืืจื•ื—ื•ืช ืงืœื•ืช ื‘ื™ืŸ ื”ืืจื•ื—ื•ืช ื”ืขื™ืงืจื™ื•ืช ืฉืœ ื”ื™ื•ื. ื”ืžื™ืœื” ื”ื›ืœืœื™ืช ืขื‘ื•ืจ ืื˜ืจื™ื•ืช ื”ื™ื hkuauq-swèh. ื”ืื˜ืจื™ื•ืช ื”ืคื•ืคื•ืœืจื™ื•ืช ื‘ื™ื•ืชืจ ื•ื”ืชื‘ืฉื™ืœ ื”ืœืื•ืžื™ ื”ืœื ืจืฉืžื™ ื”ื•ื moún-hìn-gà (ืžืื•ื™ื ื’ื” ืžืื•ื™ืชืช ืœืขืชื™ื ืงืจื•ื‘ื•ืช), ืื˜ืจื™ื•ืช ืื•ืจื– ื“ืงื•ืช ืžื•ื’ืฉื•ืช ื‘ื“ื’ื™ื ืขื‘ื™ื ื•ื‘ืฆืœ ืฆื ื•ื‘ืจ ื•ืžืขืœื™ื”ืŸ ื™ืจืงื•ืช ืžื˜ื•ื’ื ื™ื ืื• ืขื“ืฉื™ื ืžื˜ื•ื’ื ื•ืช. Móun-di (ื”ื™ื“ื•ืข ื’ื ื‘ืฉื mondhi) ื”ื ืกืคื’ื˜ื™ ื›ืžื• ืื˜ืจื™ื•ืช ืžื•ื’ืฉ ืขื ื ืชื—ื™ ืขื•ืฃ ืื• ื“ื’ื™ื. ืžื ื” ื ื•ืกืคืช ืฉืœ ืื˜ืจื™ื•ืช, ื‘ืžื™ื•ื—ื“ ื‘ืคืกื˜ื™ื‘ืœื™ื, ื”ื™ื oun-nó hkauq-swèh, ืื˜ืจื™ื•ืช ืื•ืจื– ื‘ืกื’ื ื•ืŸ ืกื™ื ื™ ืขื ื—ืชื™ื›ื•ืช ืขื•ืฃ ื‘ืžืจืง ืขืฉื•ื™ ืžื—ืœื‘ ืงื•ืงื•ืก.

ื•ืจื™ืืฆื™ื•ืช ืื–ื•ืจื™ื•ืช ื•ืืชื ื™ื•ืช

ื”ืžื˜ื‘ื— ื”ืžืงื•ืžื™ ื™ื›ื•ืœ ืœื”ื™ื•ืช ืฉื‘ื•ืจ ืจื—ื‘ ืœืชื•ืš ืžื ื•ืช ื ืžืฆืื• "ืžื™ืื ืžืจ ื”ืชื—ืชื•ืŸ" (ื‘ืขืจืš ื™ืื ื’ื•ืŸ ื•ื”ื“ืœืชื), ืขื ื™ื•ืชืจ ืžืฉื—ื•ืช ื“ื’ื™ื ื•ืžื–ื•ื ื•ืช ื—ืžื•ืฆื™ื; ื• 'ืžื™ืื ืžืจ ื”ืขืœื™ื•ืŸ' (ื‘ืžืจื›ื– ืžืื ื“ืœื™ื™), ืขื ืฉื•ืžืฉื•ื ื™ื•ืชืจ, ื”ืžืฉืžืฉื™ื ืžื ื•ืช.

ื‘ Mandalay ื•ืžืกื‘ื™ื‘ Inle Lake, ื–ื” ื’ื ื“ื™ ืงืœ ืœืžืฆื•ื ืžืื›ืœื™ื ืฉืืŸ, ืืฉืจ ื“ื•ืžื” ื‘ืžืงืฆืช ื”ืžื˜ื‘ื— ื”ืฆืคื•ืŸ ืชืื™ืœื ื“ื™. ืžื ื•ืช ืคื•ืคื•ืœืจื™ื•ืช ื”ืŸ k'auq ืกืŸ (ืื˜ืจื™ื•ืช ืื•ืจื– ื‘ืกื’ื ื•ืŸ ืฉืืŸ ืขื ืงืืจื™) ื•ืกืœื˜ื™ื ืฉื•ื ื™ื ืฉืœ ื“ื’ื™ื ื•ื‘ืฉืจ. ื’ึธื“ื•ึนืœ ma ag (ืงืจืงืจื™ื ืื•ืจื–) ื ืคื•ืฆื™ื ื‘ืจื—ื‘ื™ ื”ืžื“ื™ื ื” ืฉืืŸ.

ืื˜ืจื™ื•ืช ืฉืŸ

ืื˜ืจื™ื•ืช ืฉืŸ ืขืœ ื™ื“ื™ fabulousfabs. ืจื™ืฉื™ื•ืŸ Creative Commons.

Shan k'auq-sweh (ืžืจืง ืื™ื˜ืจื™ื•ืช ื‘ืกื’ื ื•ืŸ ืฉืืŸ), ืื˜ืจื™ื•ืช ืื•ืจื– ื“ืงื•ืช ื‘ืžืจืง ืงืœ ืขื ื ืชื—ื™ ืขื•ืฃ ืžืฆื•ืคื™ื ืฆ'ื™ืœื™ ืื• ื—ื–ื™ืจ, ื”ื•ื ืžื•ืขื“ืฃ ืขืœ ืคื ื™ ืžื™ืื ืžืจ, ืื‘ืœ ื”ื•ื ื”ื ืคื•ืฅ ื‘ื™ื•ืชืจ ืžื ื“ืœื™ื™ ื•ืฉืืŸ ื”ืžื“ื™ื ื”. ื•ืจื™ืืฆื™ื” ืคื•ืคื•ืœืจื™ืช ื‘ืžื ื“ืœื™ื™, ื”ื ืงืจืืช ืžื™ื™ ืฉื™, ื”ื•ื ืขืฉื” ืขื ืื˜ืจื™ื•ืช ืื•ืจื– ืžื•ื’ืฉ ืœืขืชื™ื ืงืจื•ื‘ื•ืช ืขื ื—ื–ื™ืจ. ืขื•ื“ ืฆืœื—ืช ืฉืืŸ ืฉื•ื•ื” ืœื—ืคืฉ ื”ื•ื ngà t'ฤƒmìn ื’ 'ื™ืŸ, "ืœื•ืฉ ืื•ืจื– ื“ื’ื™ื", ืฆืœื—ืช ืื•ืจื– ืฆื‘ื•ืขื” ื‘ื›ื•ืจื›ื•ื.

ื™ื•ื ืฉื ื™, ื”ื›ื™ ื–ืžื™ืŸ ื‘ืขืจื™ื ืžืชื™ื—ื” ืž Bago ื›ื“ื™ Mawlamyine, ื“ื•ืžื” ืžืื•ื“ ืžื–ื•ืŸ ื‘ื•ืจืžื–ื™, ืขื ื“ื’ืฉ ืจื‘ ื™ื•ืชืจ ืขืœ ื”ื‘ื—ื™ืจื•ืช ืงืืจื™. ื‘ืขื•ื“ ืžืกืขื“ื” ื‘ื•ืจืžื–ื™ืช ืขืฉื•ื™ ืœื”ืฆื™ืข ืžื‘ื—ืจ ืฉืœ ืืจื‘ืขื” ืื• ื—ืžื™ืฉื” ืงืืจื™, ื‘ืžืกืขื“ื” ืžื•ืŸ ื™ื”ื™ื• ื›ืžื• ืชืจื™ืกืจ, ื›ืœ ื‘ืฉื•ืจื” ื‘ืฉื•ืจื” ืฉืœ ืกื™ืจื™ื ืงืืจื™ ืœื”ื™ื‘ื“ืง. ืฉื ื™ ืงืืจื™ ื”ื ื’ื ืกื‘ื™ืจ ื™ื•ืชืจ ืœื”ื›ื™ืœ ืฆ 'ื™ืœื™ ืžืืฉืจ ืืœื” ืฉืœ ืžืื›ืœื™ื ืื—ืจื™ื.

Rakhaing (Arakan) ืžื–ื•ืŸ ื”ื“ื•ืžื” ื‘ื™ื•ืชืจ ืžื ื•ืช ื ืžืฆื ื‘ื ื’ืœื“ืฉ ื”ื•ื“ื• ืฉืœ ื‘ื ื’ืœ ื”ืžื“ื™ื ื”, ืฉืžืฆื™ืขื•ืช ื”ืจื‘ื” ืžื ื•ืช ืฉืขื•ืขื™ืช ื•ื“ื•ืคืง, ืžืื•ื“ ื—ืจื™ืฃ ืงืืจื™ ื• flatbreads.

ื‘ืขื™ื™ืจื•ืช ื’ื“ื•ืœื•ืช ื•ืงื˜ื ื•ืช ื‘ืจื—ื‘ื™ ืžื™ืื ืžืจ ืชืžืฆืื• ืฉืคืข ืฉืœ ืžืกืขื“ื•ืช ืกื™ื ื™ื•ืช, ืฉืจื‘ื™ื ืžื”ื ืขื•ืฉื™ื ื‘ื•ืจืžื–ื™ืช ืžื•ื‘ื”ืง ืœืงื—ืช ืขืœ ืกื˜ื ื“ืจื˜ื™ื ืกื™ื ื™ื™ื. ืœืžืจื•ืช ื”ื™ื•ืชื• ื”ืกื•ื’ ื”ื ืคื•ืฅ ื‘ื™ื•ืชืจ ืฉืœ ืื•ื›ืœ ืžื™ืื ืžืจ (upcountry ื–ื” ืœืขืชื™ื ืงืจื•ื‘ื•ืช ืกื•ื’ ืฉืœ ืžืกืขื“ื” ืชืžืฆืื•), ื–ื” ื›ื ืจืื” ื”ืžืขื ื™ื™ืŸ ืœืคื—ื•ืช.

ืžืกืขื“ื•ืช ื”ื•ื“ื™ื•ืช ื”ืŸ ื’ื ื ืคื•ืฅ, ืื ื›ื™ ื”ืจื‘ื” ื™ื•ืชืจ ื›ืš ื™ืื ื’ื•ืŸ ืžืืฉืจ ื‘ืžืงื•ืžื•ืช ืื—ืจื™ื. ืจื•ื‘ื ืžื ื•ื”ืœื™ื ืขืœ ื™ื“ื™ ืื™ื ื“ื™ืื ื™ื ืžื•ืกืœืžื™ื, ื—ืœืงื ื‘ื™ื“ื™ ื”ื™ื ื“ื™ื. ืขื•ืฃ ืžืขื•ืœื” ื“ืืŸ-ื‘ืื•ืง (biryani), ื›ืžื• ื’ื ื›ืœ ืžื” ืฉืืชื” ื™ื›ื•ืœ ืœืื›ื•ืœ ืชืืœื™ ืฆืžื—ื•ื ื™ ืžื•ื’ืฉ ืขืœ ืขืœื” ื‘ื ื ื”, ืงืœ ืœืžืฆื•ื ื‘ืขื™ืจ ื”ื‘ื™ืจื”. ืื ืฉื™ ืžื™ืื ืžืจ ืžืชืงืฉืจื™ื ืœืžืกืขื“ื•ืช ื”ื•ื“ื™ื•ืช ื”ืžื’ื™ืฉื•ืช ืืช ื›ืœ ื”ืžืกืขื“ื•ืช "ืฆ'ื™ื˜ื™" ืื• "ืฆ'ื˜ื™".

ืฉืชืฃ:

ื“ืคื™ื ื“ื•ืžื™ื

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