ื™ื•ื ื”ื•ืœื“ืช ืฉืžื—, ืœื•ื ื“ื•ืŸ ืชืช ืงืจืงืขื™: ื”ื”ื™ืกื˜ื•ืจื™ื” ื”ืžื“ื”ื™ืžื” ืฉืœ Tube

ื™ื•ื ื”ื•ืœื“ืช ืฉืžื—, ืœื•ื ื“ื•ืŸ ืชืช ืงืจืงืขื™: ื”ื”ื™ืกื˜ื•ืจื™ื” ื”ืžื“ื”ื™ืžื” ืฉืœ Tube

ืœืคื ื™ ืžืื” ื•ื—ืžื™ืฉื™ื ืฉื ื”, ื”ื—ืœื” ื”ืจื›ื‘ืช ื”ืชื—ืชื™ืช ื”ืจืืฉื•ื ื” ื‘ืขื•ืœื ืœืคืขื•ืœ ื‘ืœื•ื ื“ื•ืŸ, ืฉื ืกืขื” ืจืง ืฉื™ืฉื” ืงื™ืœื•ืžื˜ืจื™ื ืžืคื“ื™ื ื’ื˜ื•ืŸ ืœืคืืจื™ื ื’ื“ื•ืŸ. ื›ื™ื•ื, ื”ืจืฉืช ืžื›ืกื” 408 ืง"ืž, ืขื 11 ืฉื•ืจื•ืช ืœืจื•ืฅ ื“ืจืš 270 ืชื—ื ื•ืช. ื•ืœืžืจื•ืช ื›ืœ ืขื™ืจ ื’ื“ื•ืœื” ื‘ืขื•ืœื ืฉื™ืฉ ื›ืขืช ืžืขืจื›ืช ื”ืžื˜ืจื• ืฉืœื”, ืœื•ื ื“ื•ืŸ ื”ื™ื ืขื“ื™ื™ืŸ ื”ืฉื ื™ื™ื”- longest (ืฉื ื—ืื™ ื”ื•ื ื”ืจืืฉื•ืŸ).

ื’ื 'ื”ืžืขื’ืœ ืขื ื”ื‘ืจ-ื“ืจืš- It' (ื‘ืฉื™ืžื•ืฉ ืœืจืืฉื•ื ื” 1908) ื•ืืช ื”ืขื•ืœื ื”ืžืคื•ืจืกื ื‘ืœื•ื ื“ื•ืŸ ื”ืชื—ืชื™ืช ื”ืžืคื” (ืชื•ื›ื ืŸ ื‘ืฉื ืช 1931 ืขืœ ื™ื“ื™ ื”ืืจื™ ื‘ืง) ื”ื ืœื•ื ื“ื•ืŸ ืกืžืœื™ื, ืขื ื”ืžืงื•ืžื™ื™ื ื•ืชื™ื™ืจื™ื ื›ืื—ื“ ื—ื•ืœืฆื•ืช ืกืคื•ืจื˜ ื—ื•ืœืฆื•ืช ื• ืžื–ื›ืจื•ืช ืžืขื•ื˜ืจื•ืช ื‘ืžืคื•ืช ื•ืฉืžื•ืช ืชื—ื ื”. ืื– ื–ื” ืœื ืžืคืชื™ืข ื›ื™ ื”ืžืงื•ืžื™ื™ื, expats ื•ืžื˜ื™ื™ืœื™ื ื›ื•ืœื ืœื”ื™ื•ืช ื”ืœื•ื•ืื™ ืฉืœ ืœื•ื ื“ื•ืŸ 'Tube' ื™ื•ื ื”ื•ืœื“ืช ืฉืžื— ืžืื•ื“ 150.

ื›ื“ื™ ืœืฆื™ื™ืŸ ืืช ืื‘ืŸ ื“ืจืš ื–ื• ื‘ื—ื™ื™ ื”ืžื—ืชืจืช ืฉืœ ืœื•ื ื“ื•ืŸ, ื”ื ื” ืฆื™ืจ ื–ืžืŸ ืฉืœ ื”ื”ื™ืกื˜ื•ืจื™ื” ื”ืžื“ื”ื™ืžื” ืฉืœื” ื•ื›ืžื” ื›ืœืœื™ ื”ืชื ื”ื’ื•ืช ื—ื™ื•ื ื™ื™ื ืœื‘ื™ืงื•ืจ ื”ื‘ื ืฉืœืš ื‘ืœื•ื ื“ื•ืŸ.

ืฆื™ื ื•ืจ ืฆื™ืจ ื”ื–ืžืŸ

"ืขืœื‘ื•ืŸ ืœืฉื›ืœ ื”ื™ืฉืจ"

1863 - ื‘ -9 ื‘ื™ื ื•ืืจ 1863, ื‘ื™ื•ื ื”ืจืืฉื•ืŸ ืฉืœ ื”ืจื›ื‘ืช ื”ืชื—ืชื™ืช ื‘ืœื•ื ื“ื•ืŸ ื ืคืชื—, 50,000 ืื ืฉื™ื ื‘ืชื•ืจ ืœื›ืจื˜ื™ืกื™ื ืื‘ืœ ืจืง ืžืขืœ ืžื—ืฆื™ืช ืžืกืคืจ ืžืกื•ื’ืœื™ื ืœื ืกื•ืข. ืœืžืจื•ืช ื”ื–ืžื ื™ื ื‘ื˜ืขื ื” ืฉื–ื” 'ืขืœื‘ื•ืŸ ืœืฉื›ืœ ื”ื™ืฉืจ' ืฉืื ืฉื™ื ื™ืจืฆื• ืœื ืกื•ืข 'ื“ืจืš ืชืช-ื”ืงืจืงืข ื”ืกื•ืขืจืช ืฉืœ ืœื•ื ื“ื•ืŸ', ืžืžื•ืฆืข ืฉืœ 26,000 ืื ืฉื™ื ื‘ื™ื•ื ืžืฉืชืžืฉื™ื ื‘ืฉื™ืจื•ืช ื”ืžื•ืคืขืœ ื‘ืืžืฆืขื•ืช ืงื™ื˜ื•ืจ ื‘ืฉืฉืช ื”ื—ื•ื“ืฉื™ื ื”ืจืืฉื•ื ื™ื.

1890 - ื”ืฉื "Tube" ื ื˜ื‘ืข ื›ืืฉืจ ืžืชืคืชื—ืช ื“ืจืš ื—ื“ืฉื” ืœื—ืคื•ืจ ืืช ื”ืžื ื”ืจื•ืช. ืฉื™ื˜ืช "ื”ื—ื™ืชื•ืš ื•ื”ื›ื™ืกื•ื™" (ื—ืคื™ืจืช ืชืขืœื” ื‘ืจื—ื•ื‘, ื”ื ื—ืช ื”ืงื•ื•ื™ื, ื”ืžื›ืกื™ื ืืช ื”ืชืขืœื•ืช) ืžื•ื—ืœืคืช ื‘ืฉื™ื˜ืช 'ืžื’ืŸ', ื”ื™ื•ืฆืจืช ืคื—ื•ืช ื”ืคืจืขื” ื‘ื’ื•ื‘ื” ื”ืงืจืงืข, ื›ืžื’ืŸ ืกื™ื‘ื•ื‘ื™ ืขืฉื•ื™ ื‘ืจื–ืœ ื™ืฆื•ืง, ื”ืžืฉืžืฉ ืœืชืžื™ื›ื” ืืช ื›ื“ื•ืจ ื”ืืจืฅ ื‘ืขื•ื“ ื’ื‘ืจื™ื ืœื—ืคื•ืจ ื‘ื• - ื™ืฆื™ืจืช ืฆื•ืจืช ืฆื™ื ื•ืจ ืื ื• ืจื•ืื™ื ืขืœ ืจื•ื‘ ื”ืฉื•ืจื•ืช ื”ื™ื•ื. ื”ืขื™ืจ & ื“ืจื•ื ืœื•ื ื“ื•ืŸ ืงื• (ืฉื ืงืจื ืžืื•ื—ืจ ื™ื•ืชืจ ืืช ื”ืงื• ื”ืฆืคื•ื ื™) ื”ื•ื ื”ืจืืฉื•ืŸ ืœื”ืฉืชืžืฉ ื‘ืฉื™ื˜ื” ื–ื• ืขื ื›ืœ ื”ืฆืœื—ื”.

ืœื™ื“ื” ื•ืžื•ื•ืช ื‘ืžื—ืชืจืช ืœื•ื ื“ื•ืŸ

1897 - ื”ืฉื—ืงืŸ ื•ื™ืœื™ืื ื˜ืจื™ืก ื ืจืฆื— ืœื™ื“ ืชื—ื ืช ืงื•ื‘ื ื˜ ื’ืŸ - ืจื•ื— ื”ืจืคืื™ื ืฉืœื• ื”ื•ื ืืžืจ ืœืจื“ื•ืฃ ืืช ื–ื” ืขื“ื™ื™ืŸ.

1900 - ื™ืœื™ื“ ืคื™ืœื“ืœืคื™ื”, ืฆ'ืืจืœืก ื˜ื™ื™ืกื•ืŸ ื™ืจืงืก, ื”ื•ืคืš ืœื”ื™ื•ืช ืžืขื•ืจื‘ ื‘ืคื™ืชื•ื— ืžื” ื™ื”ืคื•ืš ืืช Bakerloo, Piccadilly ื•ืืช ื”ืงื•ื•ื™ื ื”ืฆืคื•ื ื™ื™ื. ื”ื•ื ืžืช ื‘ืฉื ืช 1905 ืžื‘ืœื™ ืœืจืื•ืช ืืช ื›ืœ ื”ืคืจื•ื™ืงื˜ื™ื ืฉืœื• ื”ื•ืฉืœืžื”.

1906 - Hampstead Heath ื”ื•ื›ืจื– ื›ืžืจื—ื‘ ืฆื™ื‘ื•ืจื™ ืžื•ื’ืŸ, ื•ืชื—ื ืช ื”ืจื›ื‘ืช ื”ืฆืคื•ื ื™ืช ื›ืžืขื˜, ืฉื–ื• ื”ื™ื™ืชื” ืชื—ื ืช ื”ืจื›ื‘ืช ื”ืชื—ืชื™ืช ื”ืขืžื•ืงื” ื‘ื™ื•ืชืจ ื‘ืขื™ืจ (60 ืžื˜ืจ ืžืชื—ืช ืœืคื ื™ ื”ืฉื˜ื—), ื ื ื˜ืฉืช ืขื•ื“ ืœืคื ื™ ืฉื”ื™ื ื ืคืชื—ืช.

1924 - ื”ืชื™ื ื•ืง ื”ืจืืฉื•ืŸ ืฉื ื•ืœื“ ื‘ืžื—ืชืจืช ืœื•ื ื“ื•ืŸ ืžื•ืขื‘ืจ ื‘ืชื—ื ืช Elephant & Castle. ื”ืขื™ืชื•ื ื•ืช ื˜ืขื ื” ืฉื”ื™ื ื ืงืจืื” ืชืœืžื” ืื•ืจืกื•ืœื” ื‘ื™ืื˜ืจื™ืก ืืœื™ื ื•ืจ (ื›ืš ืฉืจืืฉื™ ื”ืชื™ื‘ื•ืช ืฉืœื” ื”ื™ื• ืงื•ืจืื™ื ืืช Tube) ืื‘ืœ ื”ืกื™ืคื•ืจ ื”ื–ื” ื”ืชื‘ืจืจ ืžืื•ื—ืจ ื™ื•ืชืจ ื›ื•ื–ื‘ - ืฉืžื” ื”ืืžื™ืชื™ ื”ื™ื” ืžืืจื™ ืงื•ืจื“ื™ืจื™.

Tube ื‘ืžื”ืœืš ืžืœื—ืžืช ื”ืขื•ืœื ื”ืฉื ื™ื™ื”

1933 - ืชื—ื ืช ืจื—ื•ื‘ ื“ืื•ืŸ, ืขืœ ืงื• ืคื™ืงื“ื™ืœื™ ื‘ื™ืŸ ื”ื™ื™ื“ ืคืืจืง ืคื™ื ืช ื’ืจื™ืŸ ืคืืจืง, ืกื’ื•ืจ ื›ื™ ื–ื” ืงืจื•ื‘ ืžื“ื™ ืœืชื—ื ื•ืช ื”ืฉื›ื ื•ืช ืฉืœื”. ื–ื” ื™ื”ื™ื” ื‘ืฉื™ืžื•ืฉ ื‘ืžื”ืœืš ืžืœื—ืžืช ื”ืขื•ืœื ื”ืฉื ื™ื™ื” ืขืœ ื™ื“ื™ ืฆ'ืจืฆ'ื™ืœ ื•ืงื‘ื™ื ื˜ ื”ืžืœื—ืžื” ืฉืœื• ืœืคื’ื™ืฉื•ืช.

1940 - ืงื• ื”ืกื ื™ืฃ ืฉืœ ืงื• ืคื™ืงื“ื™ืœื™ ืžื”ื•ืœื‘ื•ืจืŸ ื•ืขื“ ืืœื“ื•ื•ื™ืฅ 'ืกื’ื•ืจ ืœืžืฉืš ื”ืžืœื—ืžื” ื›ื“ื™ ืœืื—ืกืŸ ืชืขืจื•ื›ื•ืช ืžื”ืžื•ื–ื™ืื•ืŸ ื”ื‘ืจื™ื˜ื™. 68 ืื ืฉื™ื ื˜ื‘ืขื• ื‘ืชื—ื ืช ื‘ืœื”ืื ื›ืืฉืจ ืคืฆืฆื” ืงื•ืจืขืช ืžื™ื ื”ืจืืฉื™.

1941 - 56 ืื ืฉื™ื ืžืชื™ื ื‘ืชื—ื ืช ื”ื‘ื ืง ื›ืืฉืจ ืคืฆืฆื” ืขื•ื‘ืจ ื“ืจืš ื”ืžืฉืจื“ ื›ืจื˜ื™ืกื™ื ืžืชื’ืœื’ืœ ืืœ ืคืœื˜ืคื•ืจืžื•ืช.

1943 - 173 ืื ืฉื™ื ื ืžื—ืฆื™ื ืœืžื•ื•ืช ื‘ืชื—ื ืช ื”ื™ืจื•ืง ื‘ืชื ืืœ ื›ืฉื”ื ืžื ืกื™ื ืœื”ื™ื›ื ืก ืืœื™ื” ื‘ื–ืžืŸ ื”ืคืฆืฆื” ืื•ื•ื™ืจื™ืช.

ื–ืžื ื™ื ืžื•ื“ืจื ื™ื™ื ืขืœ ื”ืจื›ื‘ืช ื”ืชื—ืชื™ืช

1961 - ื‘ -9 ื‘ืกืคื˜ืžื‘ืจ ืฉื™ืจื•ืช ื”ื ื•ืกืขื™ื ื”ืื—ืจื•ืŸ ื”ืžื•ืคืขืœ ืขืœ ื™ื“ื™ ืงื™ื˜ื•ืจ ืžืคืกื™ืง ืœืคืขื•ืœ.

2007 - ื”ืฆื™ื ื•ืจ ื ื•ืฉื 1 ืžื™ืœื™ืืจื“ ืื ืฉื™ื ื‘ืฉื ื” ื‘ืคืขื ื”ืจืืฉื•ื ื”. ืจื™ืฉื•ื ื—ื“ืฉ ืฉืœ ื™ื•ื ืื—ื“ ืฉื™ื ืฉืœ ืžืขืœ 4 ืžื™ืœื™ื•ืŸ ื ื•ืกืขื™ื ืžืชืจื—ืฉืช ื‘ -7 ื‘ื“ืฆืžื‘ืจ.

2012 - ื‘ -3 ื‘ืื•ื’ื•ืกื˜, ื‘ืžื”ืœืš ื”ืžืฉื—ืงื™ื ื”ืื•ืœื™ืžืคื™ื™ื, ืœื•ื ื“ื•ืŸ ื”ืชื—ืชื™ืช ื™ืฉ ื”ื™ื•ื ื”ืขืžื•ืก ื‘ื™ื•ืชืจ ืฉืœื” ืื™ ืคืขื ืขื 4.4 ืžื™ืœื™ื•ืŸ ื ื•ืกืขื™ื.

ื˜ื™ืคื™ื ื•ื˜ื™ืคื•ืœื™ื

ืœื•ื ื“ื•ืŸ ืžืœื•ื•ื™ื ื‘ืงื•ื“ ื”ืชื ื”ื’ื•ืช ืฉืœื ื ืืžืจ ื›ืืฉืจ ื”ื ื ื•ืกืขื™ื ืขืœ ื”ืจื›ื‘ืช ื”ืชื—ืชื™ืช, ื•ืงืฆืช ื™ื“ืข ืžืงื•ืžื™ ื”ื•ื ื—ื™ื•ื ื™ ืœืขืงื•ืฃ ืืช ื”ื‘ื™ืจื” ื”ื‘ืจื™ื˜ื™ืช. ื”ืงืคื“ ืœื”ืชืขืจื‘ื‘ ืขื ื”ืžืงื•ืžื™ื™ื ื•ืืช ื”ืžื•ื— ืืช ื”ืคืขืจ ืขืœ ื™ื“ื™ ื‘ื™ืฆื•ืข ื”ื˜ื™ืคื™ื ื”ื‘ืื™ื.

ืœึทืขึฒืฉื‚ื•ึนืชโ€ฆ

  • ืงื ื” ื›ืจื˜ื™ืก ืฆื“ืคื•ืช - ืžืกืขื•ืช ื”ื ื–ื•ืœื™ื ื™ื•ืชืจ ืขื ืื—ื“.
  • ืœืขืžื•ื“ ื‘ืฆื“ ื™ืžื™ืŸ ืขืœ ื“ืจื’ื ื•ืขื™ื, ืœืœื›ืช ื‘ืฆื“ ืฉืžืืœ - ืœื•ื ื“ื•ืŸ ื™ื”ื™ื” ืžื”ื™ืจ ืœื”ื–ื›ื™ืจ ืœืš ืืชื” ืฆืจื™ืš ืœืฉื›ื•ื— ืืช ื–ื”.
  • ืชื ื• ืœื ื•ืกืขื™ื ืื—ืจื™ื ืœืจื“ืช.
  • ืœื•ื•ืชืจ ืขืœ ื”ืžื•ืฉื‘ ืฉืœืš ืื ืžื™ืฉื”ื• ืฆืจื™ืš ืืช ื–ื” ื™ื•ืชืจ ืžืžืš.
  • ื—ืฉื•ื‘ ืขืœ ื”ืคืขืจ (ื‘ื™ืŸ ื”ืจื›ื‘ืช ืœื‘ื™ืŸ ืงืฆื” ื”ืคืœื˜ืคื•ืจืžื”) - ื”ื ื™ื›ื•ืœื™ื ืœืคืขืžื™ื ืœื”ื™ื•ืช ืจื—ื‘ื™ื ืœืžื“ื™.
  • ื”ืฉืชืžืฉ ื‘ืงื•ื•ื™ื ืžืจื›ื–ื™ื™ื ื• Piccadilly ื›ืืฉืจ ืืชื” ื™ื›ื•ืœ - ื”ื ื”ื›ื™ ืืžื™ืŸ.

ืœื ...

  • ืœื—ืกื•ื ืืช ื”ืคืชื—ื™ื - ืœื–ื•ื– ื‘ืชื•ืš ื”ืงืจื•ื ื•ืช.
  • ืฉื•ื—ื— ืขื ืื ืฉื™ื ืฉืื™ื ืš ืžื›ื™ืจ. ื’ื ืื ื”ืจื›ื‘ืช ืžืชืขื›ื‘ืช ืืชื” ืจืง ืฆืจื™ืš ืœืœืžื“, ืœื ืฉื•ื ืื• ืœื ืขืจ ืืช ื”ืจืืฉ, ื•ืœื ืœื”ื›ื•ืช ื‘ืฉื™ื—ื”.
  • ืžืกืขื•ืช ืขืœ Hammersmith & ืขื™ืจ ืื• ืžืขื’ืœ ืฉื•ืจื•ืช ืื ืืชื” ื™ื›ื•ืœ ืœืขื–ื•ืจ ืœื• - ื™ืฉ ืœื”ื ื”ืจืฉื•ืžื” ืขืœื•ื‘ ืœืฉืžืฆื” ืœืขื™ื›ื•ื‘ื™ื ื”ืคืจืขื•ืช.
  • ืžืฆืคื” ืžื™ื–ื•ื’ ืื•ื•ื™ืจ - ืžื ื”ืจื•ืช ื ืžื•ื›ื•ืช ืื•ืžืจ ืฉืื™ืŸ ืžืงื•ื ืขืœ ืจื•ื‘ ื”ืฉื•ืจื•ืช ื›ื“ื™ ืœื”ืชืงื™ืŸ ืฆื™ื•ื“ con-air ืื– ืžืฆืคื” ืœืงื‘ืœ ื—ื ื•ืžื–ื™ืข ื‘ืงื™ืฅ.

ืจื•ื™ืืœ ืœื•ื ื“ื•ืŸ, ื’ืŸ ืขื“ืŸ ืคืื ืง, ืžืงื•ื ืžื•ืฉืœื ืขื‘ื•ืจ ืชื” cuppa ... ืžื” ื”ื˜ืขื ืฉืœืš, ืชืŸ Lonely Planet ืฉืœ ืžื“ืจื™ืš ื”ืขื™ืจ ืœื•ื ื“ื•ืŸ ืœืงื—ืช ืื•ืชืš ืืœ ืœื‘ ื”ื‘ื™ืจื” ื”ื‘ืจื™ื˜ื™ืช.

ืฉืชืฃ:

ื“ืคื™ื ื“ื•ืžื™ื

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