ื‘ืขืงื‘ื•ืช ืœื™ื ืงื•ืœืŸ: ื”ื˜ื•ื‘ ื‘ื™ื•ืชืจ ืฉืœ ืืจืฆื•ืช ื”ื‘ืจื™ืช ืœื™ื ืงื•ืœืŸ ื ืกื™ืขื•ืช ื”ืžืจืื•ืช

ื‘ืขืงื‘ื•ืช ืœื™ื ืงื•ืœืŸ: ื”ื˜ื•ื‘ ื‘ื™ื•ืชืจ ืฉืœ ืืจืฆื•ืช ื”ื‘ืจื™ืช ืœื™ื ืงื•ืœืŸ ื ืกื™ืขื•ืช ื”ืžืจืื•ืช

ืขื‘ื•ืจ ื‘ื—ื•ืจ ืฉื›ื™ืกื” ื›ืœ ื›ืš ื”ืจื‘ื” ืงื™ืœื•ืžื˜ืจื™ื ื‘ื—ื™ื™ื•, ืื‘ืจื”ื ืœื™ื ืงื•ืœืŸ ืœื ื”ื™ื” "ืœื ืกื•ืข" ื‘ืžื•ื‘ืŸ ื”ื ื•ื›ื—ื™. ืคืขื ื”ื•ื ืขื‘ืจ ืขืœ ืกื™ืจืช ืžื ื•ืข ืžืื™ื ื“ื™ืื ื” ืœื ื™ื• ืื•ืจืœื™ื ืก, ืื‘ืœ ืจืง ื›ื“ื™ ืœืกืคืง ืกื—ื•ืจื” ื›ื“ื™ ืœื”ืจื•ื•ื™ื— ื›ืžื” ื“ื•ืœืจื™ื ืขื‘ื•ืจ ืื‘ื ืฉืœื•. ืขืœ ื™ืจื— ื”ื“ื‘ืฉ ื”ืžืื•ื—ืจืช ืฉืœื• ื”ื•ื ื”ื’ื™ืข ืœืžืคืœื™ ื”ื ื™ืื’ืจื”, ืื‘ืœ ื”ื•ื ืคืฉื•ื˜ ื”ื‘ื™ื˜ ืžืขื‘ืจ ืœืžืคืœื™ื ื›ื“ื™ ืœืชื”ื•ืช ืžืื™ืคื” ื‘ืื• ื›ืœ ื”ืžื™ื ื”ืืœื”.

ืื‘ืœ ืœืื ืฉื™ื ื”ื ื›ื“ื™ ืœื ืกื•ืข, ื‘ืขืงื‘ื•ืช ืœื™ื ืงื•ืœืŸ ื™ื›ื•ืœ ืœืขืฉื•ืช ืขื‘ื•ืจ ื”ืจืคืชืงืื•ืช ื’ื“ื•ืœื•ืช, ืžืจืชืง. ื•ืขื›ืฉื™ื• ืกื˜ื™ื‘ืŸ ืฉืคื™ืœื‘ืจื’ ื•ื“ื ื™ืืœ ื“ื™ื™ ืœื•ืื™ืก ืžื˜ื™ืœื™ื ืืช ื”ื–ืจืงื•ืจ ืขืœ ื”ื ืฉื™ื 16 ืขื ื”ืกืจื˜ ื”ื—ื“ืฉ ืœื™ื ืงื•ืœืŸ, ื—ืฉื‘ื ื• ืœืงืžืคืœ ืืช ืžื™ื˜ื‘ ื”ื—ื‘ื•ืจื” - ื•ืชืืžื™ื ื• ืœื ื•, ืื™ืŸ ืžื—ืกื•ืจ ื‘ืžืจืื•ืช ืฉืœ ืœื™ื ืงื•ืœืŸ - ืขื‘ื•ืจ ืžืกืœื•ืœื™ ื”ืœื™ื ืงื•ืœืŸ ื”ืขืชื™ื“ื™ื™ื ืฉืœื›ื.

ืกืคืจื™ื ื’ืคื™ืœื“, ืื™ืœื™ื ื•ื™

ืขื™ืจ ื”ื‘ื™ืจื” ืฉืœ ืื™ืœื™ื ื•ื™ ื”ื™ื ืœื™ื ืงื•ืœืŸ ื™ืขื“ # 1. ื›ืืŸ ืชืžืฆื ืืช ื”ื‘ื™ืช ื”ื™ื—ื™ื“ ืฉืœ ืœื™ื ืงื•ืœืŸ ืฉื”ื™ื” ื‘ื‘ืขืœื•ืชื•, ืืช ืžืงื•ื ื”ืžื ื•ื—ื” ื”ืื—ืจื•ืŸ ืฉืœื•, ื•ืืช ื”ืจื—ื•ื‘ื•ืช ืฉื‘ื”ื ื”ืขื ื™ืง ืขื•ืจืš ื”ื“ื™ืŸ ื”ืฆืขื™ืจ ื“ืžื•ืช ืœืื•ืžื™ืช, ื•ืขื•ื“ ื›ืžื” ื–ืงื ื™ื ืžื–ื•ื™ืคื™ื, ื›ืคื™ ืฉืชืจืฆื™. ืœื™ื ืงื•ืœืŸ ืžืงืจื™ืช ืื•ื”ื“ื™ื ื™ื”ื™ื” ืžืจื•ืฆื” ืขื ื™ื•ื ื›ืืŸ - ืื’ื•ื–ื™ื ื›ืžื•ื ื™ ื™ื›ื•ืœ ื‘ืงืœื•ืช ืœืžืœื ืฉืœื•ืฉื”.

ื ืงื•ื“ืช ื”ืžื•ืฆื ื”ื‘ืจื•ืจื” ื”ื™ื ืœื™ื ืงื•ืœืŸ ืืชืจ ื”ื‘ื™ืช ื”ืœืื•ืžื™ ื”ื”ื™ืกื˜ื•ืจื™, ืžื—ื•ื– ืžืฉื•ืžืจ ืฉืœ ืชืจื™ืกืจ ื‘ื ื™ื™ื ื™ื ื›ื•ืœืœ ื”ื‘ื™ืช ื”ื•ื ื•ืืฉืชื• ืžืจื™ ืงื ื• ื‘ืฉื ืช 1844. ืคืืจืง ืจื™ื™ื ื’ืจืก ืœืชืช ืกื™ื•ืจื™ื ืžื”ื™ืจื” ื—ื™ื ื ื‘ื‘ื™ืชื•, ืžืจืื” ืืช ื”ื—ื“ืจ ืฉื‘ื• ื‘ื ื• ืื“ื•ืืจื“ ืžืช ื•ืขื•ื“ ืฉื™ืชื•ืฃ tidbits (ื”ื ื‘ืฉื ื”ื›ืœื‘ ืคื™ื“ื•). ืžืจื›ื– ื”ืžื‘ืงืจื™ื ืžืžืœื ืกืจื˜ ืžืขื ื™ื™ืŸ ืขืœ ื™ืžื™ ืกืคืจื™ื ื’ืคื™ืœื“ ืฉืœ ืœื™ื ืงื•ืœืŸ, ื•ื”ืžืชื—ื–ื” ื”ืžืงื•ืžื™, ืคืจื™ืฅ ืงืœื™ื™ืŸ, ืžืกืžืจ ืืช ื”ืžื‘ื˜ื ื”ืืฆื™ืœื™ ื”ื’ื‘ื•ื” ืฉืœ ืœื™ื ืงื•ืœืŸ, ืฉืจื•ื‘ ื”ืฉื—ืงื ื™ื ืžืฉืžื™ื˜ื™ื ืœื• ื‘ื•ื ืžืืฆ'ื•ืื™ืกื˜ื™ ื™ื•ืชืจ.

ืžืขื•ืœื” ืกืคืจื™ื™ืช ื”ื ืฉื™ืื•ืช ื•ื”ืžื•ื–ื™ืื•ืŸ ื”ื ืฉื™ืื•ืชื™ ืข"ืฉ ืื‘ืจื”ื ืœื™ื ืงื•ืœืŸ ื‘ืงืœื•ืช ืžืฆื“ื™ืง ืืช ื›ืจื˜ื™ืก 12 ื“ื•ืœืจ. ื”ืžื•ื–ื™ืื•ืŸ ื›ื•ืœืœ ื›ืžื” ืกืจื˜ื™ื ืžืฆื•ื™ื ื™ื, ื›ื•ืœืœ ืื—ื“ ืžื•ื“ื” ื‘ื—ื•ืคืฉื™ื•ืช ืื™ืš ื”ืื’ื“ื” ืฉืœ ืื™ื™ื‘ ื”ื•ื ืœืขืชื™ื ืงืจื•ื‘ื•ืช blown ืคืจื•ืคื•ืจืฆื™ื”. ืชืขืจื•ื›ื•ืช ื‘ืขืงื‘ื•ืช ื—ื™ื™ื• ืขื ื—ื“ืจื™ื ืžื—ื“ืฉ ืงืจื™ืงื˜ื•ืจื•ืช ืžืฆื—ื™ืง ืžืฆื—ื™ืง ืžืŸ ื”ื ืฉื™ืื•ืช ืฉืœื•. ืืฃ ืื—ื“ ืœื ืžืชื ื’ื“ ืคื•ื–ื•ืช ืœืชืฆืœื•ืžื™ื ืขื ื”ืžืฉืคื—ื” ื”ืจืืฉื•ื ื” ืฉืขื•ื•ื” ืžื—ื•ืฅ ื—ื–ื™ืช ื”ื‘ื™ืช ื”ืœื‘ืŸ ืžื–ื•ื™ืฃ.

ื›ืžื” ืงื™ืœื•ืžื˜ืจื™ื ืฆืคื•ื ื”, ืœื™ื ืงื•ืœืŸ ืงื‘ืจ, ื‘ื‘ื™ืช ื”ืงื‘ืจื•ืช Oak Ridge, ื›ื•ืœืœ ืื ื“ืจื˜ื” ื‘ืื•ืจืš ืฉืœ 117 ืžื˜ืจื™ื ื”ืžืฉืžืฉืช ื›ืžืงื•ื ื”ืžื ื•ื—ื” ื”ืื—ืจื•ืŸ ืฉืœ ืœื™ื ืงื•ืœืŸ, ืžืจื™ ื•ืฉืœื•ืฉื” ืžืืจื‘ืขืช ื‘ื ื™ื”ื. ืฉื™ืžื• ืœื‘ ืœื˜ื™ืคื•ืก ื”ืงืœื•ืฉ ืฉืœ ืฉืžื•ืช ื”ื‘ื ื™ื: 'ื•ื™ืœื™' ื•'ืื“ื™ 'ืžืงื‘ืœื™ื ื’ื•ื“ืœ ื’ื•ืคืŸ ืงื˜ืŸ ื™ื•ืชืจ ืžืืฉืจ' ื˜ืื“ '. ืขื•ื‘ื“ ืงื‘ืจ ื”ืกื‘ื™ืจ, "ื›ืŸ, ืืฃ ืื—ื“ ืœื ื™ื•ื“ืข ืœืžื” ื”ื ืขืฉื• ืืช ื–ื”. ืื‘ืœ ื˜ื“ ื”ื•ื ื’ื ื›ื™ื ื•ื™, ืงืฆืจ ืœืจืืฉืŸ.

ื‘ืฉื‘ื™ืœ ืื•ื›ืœ, ื ื•ืจื‘ ืื ื“ื™ ื˜ื‘ืจื™ืŸ ื”ื•ื ื‘ืจ ืฆืœื™ืœื” / ืžืกืขื“ื” ื’ื“ื•ืœื” ืขื ื”ืžืงื•ืžื™ื™ื ืืฉืจ ืฉื•ื›ืŸ ื‘ื‘ื™ืช ื”ื™ื•ืงื•ืงืก 1837, ืขืœ ืฉืžื• ืฉืœ ืชื•ืžืš ืžืงื•ืžื™ ืฉืœ ื”ื™ืจื™ื‘ ื”ื‘ื•ืœื˜ ื‘ื™ื•ืชืจ ืฉืœ ืœื™ื ืงื•ืœืŸ, ืกื˜ื™ื‘ืŸ ื“ืื’ืœืก. ืื ืžืขืจื›ืช ื”ืขื™ื›ื•ืœ ืฉืœืš ืขื•ืžื“ืช ื‘ืคื ื™ ืืชื’ืจ, ืœื›ื• ืขื ื”ืคืจืกื”, ืื• ืžืงื•ืจื™ ืฉืœ ืกืคืจื™ื ื’ืคื™ืœื“: ื›ืจื™ืš ืคืชื•ื— ืฉืœ ื”ืžื‘ื•ืจื’ืจ ืื• ืฉืœืฃ ื—ื–ื™ืจ ืžืฆื•ืคื” ื‘ืจื•ื˜ื‘ ืฆ'ื™ืคืก ื•ืจื•ื˜ื‘. ื˜ืขื™ื, ืื‘ืœ ื–ื” ืžืงืœื•ืช ื‘ืžืฉืš ื™ื•ื ืื• ื™ื•ืžื™ื™ื.

ื‘ืกื‘ื™ื‘ื•ืช ืกืคืจื™ื ื’ืคื™ืœื“

ืžื‘ืงืจื™ื ืจื‘ื™ื ืžืฉืชืžืฉื™ื ื‘ืกืคืจื™ื ื’ืคื™ืœื“ ื›ืจื›ื–ืช ืœื”ื›ื•ืช ื›ืžื” ืืชืจื™ื ืœื™ื ืงื•ืœืŸ ื”ืกืžื•ืš:

  • ืœื™ื ืงื•ืœืŸ ื”ื•ืžืกื˜ื“ ืฉื‘ื™ืœ ืžื“ื™ื ืช ื”ื–ื™ื›ืจื•ืŸ. ื–ื” ืืชืจ ื‘ื•ื“ื“, ืžืชืคื•ืจืจ ืžืขื˜ ืœืื•ืจืš ื ื”ืจ Sangamon ื”ื•ื ื”ืžืงื•ื ืฉื‘ื• ืื‘ื ืฉืœ ืœื™ื ืงื•ืœืŸ ืขื‘ืจื” ื”ืžืฉืคื—ื” ื‘ืฉื ืช 1830. ื‘ื’ื™ืœ 22, ืœื™ื ืงื•ืœืŸ ืขื–ื‘ ืืช ื”ื‘ื™ืช ืœื ืฆื— ืขืœ ื™ื“ื™ ืกื™ืจื” ื›ื“ื™ ืœืจืื•ืช ืžื” ื”ื•ื ื™ื›ื•ืœ ืœืขืฉื•ืช ืœืžืขืŸ ืขืฆืžื•. ืขื•ืžื“ ืขืœ ื‘ืœื•ืฃ ื–ื”, ื–ื” ืงืœ ืœื”ืจื’ื™ืฉ ืืช 19ื” ืขื“ื™ื™ืŸ ืœื“ืžื™ื™ืŸ ืฆืขื™ืจ ืื™ื“ื™ืืœื™ืกื˜ื™ ื—ืชื™ืจื” ืœืชื•ืš ื”ืขืชื™ื“ ืฉืœื•. ื”ืžืงื•ืžื™ื™ื ืžื—ื“ืฉ ืœื™ืฆื•ืจ ืืช ื”ืžืกืข, 66 ืงื™ืœื•ืžื˜ืจื™ื ืœื ื™ื• ืกืืœื, ืขืœ ื˜ื™ื•ืœ ืฉืœ ื™ื•ืžื™ื™ื ื‘ื™ื•ื ืกื•ืฃ ื™ื•ื ื”ื–ื™ื›ืจื•ืŸ. ื”ืื ืฉื™ื ื”ืื ืจื’ื˜ื™ื™ื ืกืืœื ื—ื“ืฉ ืžืฆื™ืขื™ื ืœื™ื ืงื•ืœืŸ ื˜ื™ื•ืœื™ื ืฉืœ ื”ื ื”ืจ ืžื“ื™.
  • ืœื™ื ืงื•ืœืŸ ื ื™ื• ืกืืœื ื”ืžื“ื™ื ื” ื”ื”ื™ืกื˜ื•ืจื™ืช ืฉืœ ื”ืืชืจ. ื ื™ื• ืกืืœื ืžืกืžืŸ ืืช ื”ืืชืจ ื”ืจืืฉื•ืŸ ืฉืœ ืœื™ื ืงื•ืœืŸ ื”ืจืืฉื•ืŸ ืฉืœ ื”ื‘ื™ืช ืœืื—ืจ ืฉืขื–ื‘ ืืช ืžืฉืคื—ืชื• ื‘ 22. ืขื›ืฉื™ื• ื–ื” ื”ื–ืžืŸ ื”ื•ื‘ืœื” ืจืฉืช ืฉืœ ื‘ืชื™ ืขืฅ ืขื reenactors ืžื–ื•ืงืŸ. ื‘ื™ืžื™ื•, ืœื™ื ืงื•ืœืŸ ื ืฉื‘ืข ืœื•ื•ื™ืกืงื™ ืœื›ืœ ื”ื—ื™ื™ื, ืžืคื ื™ ืฉื”ื•ื ื”ื•ืชื™ืจ ืื•ืชื• "ืžืจื•ืคื˜ ื•ื ื˜ื•ืฉ". ื”ืขื™ืจ ื ื ื˜ืฉื” ื‘ืกื‘ื™ื‘ื•ืช 1840.
  • ืœื™ื ืงื•ืœืŸ, ืื™ืœื™ื ื•ื™. ื‘ืืจื”"ื‘ ื™ืฉ ื”ืจื‘ื” ืžืงื•ืžื•ืช ื‘ืฉื ืœื™ื ืงื•ืœืŸ, ืื‘ืœ ืจืง ืœื™ื ืงื•ืœืŸ, ืื™ืœื™ื ื•ื™ ื ืงืจื ืขืœ ืฉืžื• ื‘ืžื”ืœืš ื—ื™ื™ื•. ื‘ 1853 ื”ื˜ื‘ื™ืœื”, ืœื™ื ืงื•ืœืŸ ืœื ืจืื™ืชื™ ืฉื•ื ืฉืžืคื ื™ื” ืขืœ ื”ื™ื“, ื›ืš ืฉื‘ืจ ืื‘ื˜ื™ื— ืœืขืฉื•ืช ืืช ื”ืžืขืฉื” - ื•ื‘ื›ืš ืคืกืœ ืื‘ื˜ื™ื— ื’ื•ืœืžื™ ืขืœ ื™ื“ื™ ืชื—ื ืช ืืžื˜ืจืง ื–ืขื™ืจ. ื›ื™ื•ื ื”ืขื™ืจ ื™ื“ื•ืขื” ื™ื•ืชืจ ื‘ื–ื›ื•ืช ื”ื™ื•ืชื” ื‘ื™ืชื• ืฉืœ ื”ืขื’ืœื” ื”ื’ื“ื•ืœื” ื‘ื™ื•ืชืจ ื‘ืขื•ืœื, ื›ื‘ื™ืฉ 66 ืขื ืชืฆืœื•ื ืฉืœ ืœื™ื ืงื•ืœืŸ ื™ื•ืฉื‘ ืขืœ ืขื’ืœื” ื•ืงื•ืจื ืกืคืจ ื—ื•ืง.

ื•ื•ืฉื™ื ื’ื˜ื•ืŸ

ืœื™ื ืงื•ืœืŸ, ื”ืžื ื”ื™ื’ ื”ืจืืฉื•ืŸ ืฉื ืจืฆื— ื‘ืืจืฆื•ืช ื”ื‘ืจื™ืช, ื ืจืื” ืœืขืชื™ื ืงืจื•ื‘ื•ืช ืฆื•ืขื“ ืœื‘ื“ื• ื‘ืจื—ื•ื‘ื•ืช ื“ื™.ืกื™., ืื•ื›ืœ ืชืคื•ื—, ืžืงื“ื ื‘ื‘ืจื›ื” ื›ืœ ืžื™ ืฉืจืฆื” ืœื‘ืงืจ ื‘ื‘ื™ืช ื”ืœื‘ืŸ, ืื• ื”ื•ืœืš ืœืชื™ืื˜ืจื•ืŸ (ื”ื•ื ืขืฉื” ื› -100 ืžืชื•ืš 101 ื ืกื™ืขื•ืช ื‘ืœื™ ืœื™ืจื•ืช).

ืืชื” ืฆืจื™ืš ืœืจืื•ืช ืืช ืื ื“ืจื˜ืช ืœื™ื ืงื•ืœืŸ, ืื—ื“ ื”ืžื•ื ื•ืžื ื˜ื™ื ื”ืžืจื’ืฉื™ื ื‘ื™ื•ืชืจ ืฉืœ ื”ืื•ืžื”. ืขืœ ื’ื“ื•ืช ื”ืคื•ื˜ื•ืžืง - ื”ื’ื‘ื•ืœ ื”ืงื•ื“ื ื‘ื™ืŸ ื”ืฆืคื•ืŸ ืœื“ืจื•ื - ื”ืžื‘ื ื” ื›ื•ืœืœ 36 ืขืžื•ื“ื™ื ื“ื•ืจื™ื™ื ื”ืžืกืžืœื™ื ืืช 36 ื”ืžื“ื™ื ื•ืช ื”ืžืื•ื—ื“ื•ืช ืชื—ืช ื”ืฉืขื•ืŸ ืฉืœ ืœื™ื ืงื•ืœืŸ.ืคืกืœื• ืฉืœ ื“ื ื™ืืœ ืฆ'ืกื˜ืจ ื”ืฆืจืคืชื™ ืฉืœ ืžื‘ื˜ ืœื™ื ืงื•ืœืŸ ื™ื•ืฉื‘ (ืžืขื˜ ื›ืœืคื™ ืžื˜ื”) ืœืขื‘ืจ ืื ื“ืจื˜ืช ื•ื•ืฉื™ื ื’ื˜ื•ืŸ, ืขื ื™ื“ ืื—ืช ืกื’ื•ืจื” ื‘ืื’ืจื•ืฃ, ืžืจืื” ื ื—ื™ืฉื•ืช ื•ื›ื•ื—, ื•ื”ืฉื ื™ ืคืชื•ื—, ืžื”ื“ื”ื“ ืืช ื”ืจื’ืฉ ืฉืœ "ื–ื“ื•ืŸ ืœืืฃ ืื—ื“".

ืžื‘ื™ืŸ ื”ืžืงื•ืžื•ืช ื”ืจื‘ื™ื ืืฉืจ ื‘ื™ืงืจ ื‘ืœื™ื ืงื•ืœืŸ, ืืฃ ืื—ื“ ืžื”ื ืœื ื–ื›ื” ืœืชื’ื•ื‘ื” ื™ื•ืชืจ ืžืืฉืจ ืชื™ืื˜ืจื•ืŸ ืคื•ืจื“, ืฉื‘ื• ื ื•ืจื” ื”ื ืฉื™ื ื‘ -14 ื‘ืืคืจื™ืœ 1865. ื–ื” ื ื”ื“ืจ. ื”ืชืขืจื•ื›ื•ืช ื›ื•ืœืœื•ืช ืืช ื”ืืงื“ื— ืฉืœ ื’'ื•ืŸ ื•ื•ื™ืœืงืก ื‘ื•ืช ื•ืืช ื”ื›ื“ื•ืจ ืฉื ื”ื’ ืœื”ืจื•ื’ ืืช ืœื™ื ืงื•ืœืŸ. ืœืื—ืจ ืžื›ืŸ ืœืฉื‘ืช ื‘ืžื•ืฉื‘ ื”ืชื™ืื˜ืจื•ืŸ ื•ืœืงื—ืช ืืช ื”ืฉื‘ื™ืœ ื‘ื•ืช ืขืฉื” ื›ื“ื™ ืœื”ื™ื›ื ืก ืœืงื•ืคืกื” ืฉืœ ื”ื ืฉื™ื.

ืงื ื˜ืงื™

ืžืงื•ืจื•ืชื™ื• ื”ื“ืœื™ื ืฉืœ ืœื™ื ืงื•ืœืŸ ื›ื” ืžืคื•ืจืกืžื™ื ืขื“ ื›ื“ื™ ื›ืš ืฉื”ื•ื ื ื•ืœื“ ื‘ื‘ืงืชืช ืขืฅ "ืฉื”ื•ื ื‘ื ื” ื‘ืฉืชื™ ื™ื“ื™ื•." ื”ืžืงื•ืจ, ื›ืžื• ืื™ื™ื‘, ืฉื™ื™ืš ืœื“ื•ืจื•ืช. ืื‘ืœ ื”ื ื•ืกืข ื”ื“ืžื™ื•ื ื™ ื™ื›ื•ืœ ืœื”ืจื’ื™ืฉ ืืช ื”ื ื•ืขืจ ืฉืœ ืื™ื™ื‘ ืขื ื‘ื™ืงื•ืจ ืื‘ืจื”ื ืœื™ื ืงื•ืœืŸ, ืœื™ื“ ื”ืื‘ื™ื‘ ืฉื•ืงืข ื‘ื”ื•ื“ื’ื ื•ื•ื™ืœ. "ื›ืืŸ ืœื™ื“ื” ืกืžืœื™" ืฉืœ ื”ืœื™ื“ื” 1809 ื”ื•ื ื›ืืŸ, ื™ื—ื“ ืขื ื˜ื™ื•ืœื™ื ื‘ื™ืขืจ ืœื™ื ืงื•ืœืŸ ืคืขื ื“ืฉื“ื•ืฉ. ื‘ Knob ืขืจื•ืฅ ืกืžื•ืš ื”ื•ื ืขื•ื“ ืฉื—ื–ื•ืจ ื‘ืงืชื”, ื‘ืืชืจ ืฉืœ ื–ื™ื›ืจื•ื ื•ืช ื”ืจืืฉื•ื ื™ื ืฉืœ ืœื™ื ืงื•ืœืŸ.

ืื™ื ื“ื™ืื ื”

ืœื™ื ืงื•ืœืŸ ื—ื™ ื–ืžืŸ ื›ืคื•ืœ ื‘ื“ืจื•ื ืื™ื ื“ื™ืื ื” ื›ืžืงื•ื ื”ื•ืœื“ืชื• ืฉืœ ืงื ื˜ืงื™, ื•ืืชืจื™ื ื”ืžืงื•ืฉืจื™ื ืœืชืงื•ืคื” ืžืคื•ื–ืจื™ื ืขืœ ืื ื“ืจื˜ืช ื”ื–ื™ื›ืจื•ืŸ ื”ืœืื•ืžื™ืช ืฉืœ ืœื™ื ืงื•ืœืŸ ื• ืœื™ื ืงื•ืœืŸ ืžื“ื™ื ืช ืคืืจืง, ืœื™ื“ ื’ื ื˜ืจื™ื•ื•ื™ืœ ื•ืœื™ื ืงื•ืœืŸ ืกื™ื˜ื™. ืœื™ื ืงื•ืœืŸ ืœื ืชืžื™ื“ ืื”ื‘ ืืช ืื™ื ื“ื™ืื ื”. ื”ื•ื ื›ื™ื ื” ื–ืืช ืคืขื ื›"ื‘ืœืชื™-ื˜ื™ืคื•ืกื™ืช ื›ืžื• ื›ืœ ืžืงื•ื ื‘ืขื•ืœื", ืืฃ ืขืœ ืคื™ ืฉื—ื™ื™ื• ื›ืืŸ ืขื–ืจื• ืœืขืฆื‘ ืืช ื”ืฉืงืคืช ื”ืขื•ืœื ื”ืขืžืžื™ืช ืฉืœื•, ืฉืžืื•ื—ืจ ื™ื•ืชืจ ื–ื›ืชื” ืœื›ื™ื ื•ื™ "ื›ื‘ื•ื“ื•".

ืจื™ืฆ'ืžื•ื ื“, ื•ื™ืจื’'ื™ื ื™ื”

ืœืžืจื•ืช ื”ืกื™ื›ื•ื ื™ื, ืœื™ื ืงื•ืœืŸ ืžืฆื ื‘ืื•ืคืŸ ืงื‘ื•ืข ื›ื•ื—ื•ืช ื‘ื™ืงื•ืจ ื•ืืชืจื™ ืงืจื‘ ืœื”ื—ื™ื•ืช ื›ืžื• ื’ื ืžืชืŸ ื“ื—ื™ืคื” ื”ื“ืจื•ืฉื” ืฉืœ ืชืžื™ื›ื” ืœื—ื™ื™ืœื™ื ืคืฆื•ืขื™ื. ืื•ืœื™ ื‘ื™ืงื•ืจื• ื”ื ื•ืขื– ื‘ื™ื•ืชืจ, ืจืง ืขืฉืจื” ื™ืžื™ื ืœืคื ื™ ืžื•ืชื•, ื”ื™ื” ื™ื“ ื‘ื™ื“ ืขื ื‘ื ื• ื‘ืŸ ื” -12, ื˜ืื“, ื‘ืจื—ื•ื‘ื•ืช ื‘ื™ืจืช ื”ืงื•ื ืคื“ืจืฆื™ื” ืฉืœ ืจื™ืฆ'ืžื•ื ื“, ืฉื ืœืงื—ื” ืขืœ ื™ื“ื™ ื›ื•ื—ื•ืช ื”ืื™ื—ื•ื“ ืจืง ื™ื•ื ืงื•ื“ื ืœื›ืŸ.

ืชื•ื›ืœ ืœื—ื–ื•ืจ ืขืœ ื›ืžื” ืžื”ืฉืœื‘ื™ื. ืœื™ื ืงื•ืœืŸ ื™ืฉื‘ ื‘ืงืฆืจื” ื‘ื›ื™ืกื ืฉืœ ื’'ืคืจืกื•ืŸ ื“ื™ื™ื•ื•ื™ืก ื‘ื™ืช ื”ืœื‘ืŸ ืฉืœ ื”ืงื•ื ืคื“ืจืฆื™ื”, ืืฉืจ ืคืชื•ื— ืœื‘ืงืจ ื•ืชื›ื•ื ื•ืช ื™ื•ืชืจ ืžืžื—ืฆื™ืช ืจื™ื”ื•ื˜ ืžืงื•ืจื™. ื–ื” ื—ืœืง ืžื•ื–ื™ืื•ืŸ ื”ืงื•ื ืคื“ืจืฆื™ื”, ืœื™ื“ ื”ื“ืœืช, ืื ื›ื™ ื”ืžื•ื–ื™ืื•ืŸ ื”ืžืขื ื™ื™ืŸ ื‘ื™ื•ืชืจ ืฉืœ ืžืœื—ืžืช ื”ืื–ืจื—ื™ื ื‘ืขื™ืจ ื”ื•ื ืžืœื—ืžืช ื”ืื–ืจื—ื™ื ื”ืืžืจื™ืงื ื™ืช, ื”ืžืชืงืจื‘ืช ืœืงื•ื ืคืœื™ืงื˜ ืžืฉืœื•ืฉ ื ืงื•ื“ื•ืช ืžื‘ื˜: ื”ื“ืจื•ื, ื”ืฆืคื•ืŸ ื• ืขื‘ื“ื™ื. ืžื—ื•ืฅ ืœื” ื ื•ืกืคื” ืœืื—ืจื•ื ื” ืคืกืœ ืฉืงื˜ ืฉืœ ืœื™ื ืงื•ืœืŸ ืขื Tad, ืืฉืจ ื ืชืงืœื” ื‘ืžื—ืื” ื‘ืžื”ืœืš ืคืชื™ื—ืช 2003 ืฉืœื”.

ื’ื˜ื™ืกื‘ืจื’, ืคื ืกื™ืœื‘ื ื™ื”

ื’ื ืื ื–ื” ืœื ื”ื™ื” ืขื‘ื•ืจ "ืžื›ืชื‘ ื’ื˜ื™ืกื‘ืจื’" ืฉืœ ืœื™ื ืงื•ืœืŸ, "ื”ืžื™ืœื”" ื”ืคืืจืง ื”ืœืื•ืžื™ ืฉืœ ื’ื˜ื™ืกื‘ืจื’ ื™ื”ื™ื” ืื—ื“ ื”ืคืืจืงื™ื ื”ืœืื•ืžื™ื™ื ื”ืžืจื’ืฉื™ื ื‘ื™ื•ืชืจ ื‘ืืจื”"ื‘. ื‘ืžื”ืœืš ื”ืงืจื‘ ื”ืžืจื›ื–ื™ ื‘ -1863, ื”ืชืงื•ื•ืช ื”ืื—ืจื•ื ื•ืช ืฉื”ื›ืจื™ื–ื• ืขืœ ื“ืจื•ื ืœื›ื‘ื•ืฉ ืืช ื”ืฆืคื•ืŸ ื ืขืœืžื• ื‘ืชืคื™ืœื” ื—ืกืจืช ืชื•ืขืœืช ืฉืœ ืคื™ืงื˜. ืœืš ืœืฉื ื‘ื—ืฉื™ื›ื” ื›ื“ื™ ืœืจืื•ืช ืืช ืฉื“ื” ื”ืงืจื‘.

ื”ืืชืจ ื‘ืคื•ืขืœ ืฉืœ ื”ื“ื™ื‘ื•ืจ ืฉืœ ืœื™ื ืงื•ืœืŸ ื”ื•ื ื”ืจื‘ื” ื“ื™ื•ืŸ, ืื‘ืœ ืžืกื•ืžืŸ ืขืœ ื™ื“ื™ ืื ื“ืจื˜ื” ืœืื•ืžื™ืช ืฉืœ ื—ื™ื™ืœ, ืฉื ื‘ื ื” ื›ืขื‘ื•ืจ ืฉื ื™ื. ื™ืฉ ื”ื˜ื•ืขื ื™ื ืฉื”ื™ื ืงืจื•ื‘ื” ื™ื•ืชืจ ืœืื ื“ืจื˜ืช ืœื™ื ืงื•ืœืŸ ื“ื™ื‘ื•ืจ ื”ืกืžื•ื›ื”, ืฉื”ื’ื™ืขื” ืœ -100 ื”ืฉื ื”. ืžื“ื™ ืฉื ื” ืื“ื ื™ื“ื•ืข reenacts ืฉืœ ืœื™ื ืงื•ืœืŸ 'Gettysburg ื›ืชื•ื‘ืช' ื‘ื™ื•ื ื”ืฉื ื” ืฉืœื”. 2012 - ืœื ืžืคืชื™ืข - ื”ื•ื ืกื˜ื™ื‘ืŸ ืฉืคื™ืœื‘ืจื’ ืฉื ื”.
ืจื•ื‘ืจื˜ ืจื™ื“ ื”ื•ื Lonely Planet ืฉืœ ืืจื”"ื‘ ื ืกื™ืขื•ืช ืขื•ืจืš ืชื•ืฉื‘ ืชื•ืฉื‘ ืœื™ื ืงื•ืœืŸ. ืขืงื•ื‘ ืื—ืจ ื”ื ืกื™ืขื•ืช ืฉืœ ืจื•ื‘ืจื˜ ื‘ืคื™ื™ืกื‘ื•ืง ื•ื˜ื•ื•ื™ื˜ืจ.

ืฉืชืฃ:

ื“ืคื™ื ื“ื•ืžื™ื

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