ืกื™ื•ืจ ื‘ืืœืงื˜ืจื– ืฉืœ ืกืŸ ืคืจื ืกื™ืกืงื•

ืกื™ื•ืจ ื‘ืืœืงื˜ืจื– ืฉืœ ืกืŸ ืคืจื ืกื™ืกืงื•

ืืœืงื˜ืจื– ื”ื•ื ืื—ื“ ื”ืขื˜ื™ื ื”ื™ื“ื•ืขื™ื ืœืฉืžืฆื” ื‘ื™ื•ืชืจ ื‘ืขื•ืœื. ื›ืืฉืจ ืืชื” ืžื‘ืงืจ, ืกืคืจ ืืช ืกื™ื•ืจ ืœื™ืœื” ืคื•ืคื•ืœืจื™ ื•ืœืจืื•ืช ืืช ื”ืฉืžืฉ ืœื”ื’ื“ื™ืจ ืžืขืœ "ืจื•ืง", ื›ืคื™ ืฉื”ื•ื ืžืคื•ืจืกื monikered, ื•ืœืื—ืจ ืžื›ืŸ ืกื™ื•ืจ ื‘ื‘ื™ืช ื”ืชื ื”ื—ืฉื•ืš ืขื‘ื•ืจ ื’ื•ืจื ื”ืฉืจืฅ ืžืงืกื™ืžืœื™ืช.

ืขื•ื“ ืœืคื ื™ ื”ืžืขื‘ื•ืจืช ืฉืœืš ืžื’ื™ืข ืขืœ ื”ืกืœืข, ืชืชื—ื™ืœ ื–ื•ืžื ื”ืžื™ืœื•ื˜ ืฉืœืš. ื”ืžื•ื‘ืŸ ื”ื‘ืจื•ืจ ื”ื•ื ื—ื•ื‘ื” ื›ื‘ื™ืกื”, ื•ืืช ืžืชื’ื ื‘ืช ื”ื—ื•ืฆื” ื‘ืขื•ืžืก ืฉืœ ืกื“ื™ื ื™ื. ืื‘ืœ ืžื”? ืื ืืชื” ื ืชืคืก ืืชื” ืชื™ืฉืœื— ืœ D- ื‘ืœื•ืง ื‘ื•ื“ื“, ืงื•ื‘ื™ื™ื” ืงื˜ื ื” ืฉื‘ื• ื™ืžื™ื ืžืกื•ืžื ื™ื ืขืœ ื™ื“ื™ ืคื™ืจ ืื•ืจ ื—ื•ืฆื” ืืช ื”ืงื™ืจ - ืื• ืฉืืชื” ื™ื›ื•ืœ ืœื”ื™ื•ืช ื ื—ืงืจ ื‘ืืžืฆืขื•ืช ื˜ื›ื ื™ืงื•ืช ืจืง ืจืžื– ืœืกื™ื•ืจ ืื•ื“ื™ื• ืืœืงื˜ืจื– ืื—ืจืช, ืขื ื—ืฉื‘ื•ื ื•ืช ืžืžืงื•ืจ ืจืืฉื•ืŸ ืขืœ ื™ื“ื™ ืฉื•ืžืจื™ ื”ืืกื™ืจื™ื ื•ืืกื™ืจื™ื ืฉืœ ืจื•ืง.

ืœื”ืฉื”ื•ืช ื‘ืกืคืจื™ื™ื” ื›ื“ื™ ืœื‘ื“ื•ืง ืืช ื”ืกืคืจื™ื ื”ืืกื™ืจ ื”ืžืžื•ืฆืข ืœืงืจื•ื ื‘ืฉื™ืขื•ืจ ืฉืœ 75-100 ื‘ืฉื ื” - ืœืžืจื•ืช ืฉืืฃ ืื—ื“ ื”ืกืคืจื™ื ืœื ื™ื›ื•ืœ ืœื”ื™ื•ืช ื”ืคื ื™ื•ืช ืœืคืฉืข, ืืœื™ืžื•ืช ืื• ืžื™ืŸ. ืืจื•ื—ื•ืช ืžืชื•ื—ื•ืช ืฉืœ 20 ื“ืงื•ืช ื”ื•ื’ืฉื• ืชื—ืช ืฉืžื™ืจื” ื—ืžื•ืฉื” ื‘ื—ื“ืจ ื”ืื•ื›ืœ, ืฉื ืœื ื ื•ืชืจื” ื›ืฃ ื•ืœื ื ืžืกืจื”, ื•ื”ืฉืœื˜ ื”ื•ืจื” ืœืืกื™ืจื™ื: 'ืงื— ืืช ื›ืœ ืžื” ืฉืืชื” ืจื•ืฆื” - ืชืื›ืœ ืืช ื›ืœ ืžื” ืฉืืชื” ืœื•ืงื—'. ืื ืืชื” ืžืขื–, ืฆืขื“ ื‘ืชื•ืš ืชื ื•ืœื”ื•ืจื™ื“ ืืช ื”ืื•ื–ื ื™ื•ืช ืœืจื’ืข, ืœื”ืงืฉื™ื‘ ืœืงื•ืœ ื—ื™ื™ ื”ืขื™ืจ ื—ืกืจื™ ื“ืื’ื•ืช ื ืกื™ืขื” 1.25 ืงื™ืœื•ืžื˜ืจื™ื ืขืœ ืคื ื™ ื”ืžื™ื.

ื–ื”ื• ื”ื™ื™ืกื•ืจื™ื ืฉื’ืจืžื• ืœื”ืคืกืงื•ืช ืžืกื•ื›ื ื•ืช ืฉืœ ื”ื›ืœื ื•ืœื–ื™ื ื•ืง ืžืขื•ืคืฃ ืœืชื•ืš ืจื™ืคื˜ื™ื“ื™ื ืฉื•ื•ื™ื ืืช ื”ืกื™ื›ื•ืŸ, ืžืžื™ื™ืกื“ื™ ื”ืžืื” ื” -19 ืฉืœ ื‘ื™ืช ื”ื›ืœื, ื›ื“ื™ ืœื”ื—ื–ื™ืง ืืช ืขืจื™ืคื™ ืžืœื—ืžืช ื”ืื–ืจื—ื™ื ื•ืืช ื”ืžืชื ื’ื“ื™ื ื”ืืžืจื™ืงื ื™ื.

ื‘- 1934 ื”ืฉืชืœื˜ื• ื”ืคื“ืจืœื™ื˜ื•ืช ืขืœ ื‘ืชื™ ื”ืงื‘ืจื•ืช ืฉืœ ืืœืงื˜ืจื– ื›ื“ื™ ืœื”ืขืžื™ื“ ืœื“ื™ืŸ ืืช ื”ืคื•ืฉืขื™ื ื”ื’ื‘ื•ื”ื™ื, ื›ืžื• ื”ื‘ื•ืก ืฉืœ "ืฉื™ืงืืคื™ืก", "ื”ืžืฉื•ืจืจืช" ืฉืœ ืงืืคื•ื ื”, ื”ืžืฉื•ืจืจ ื”ืืจืœื-ืžืคื™ื•ืกื• "ื‘ืžืคื™ ื’'ื•ื ืกื•ืŸ" ื•ืžื•ืจื˜ื•ืŸ ืกื•ื‘ืœ, ืฉื ืžืฆืื• ืืฉืžื™ื ื‘ืจื™ื’ื•ืœ ืกื•ื‘ื™ื™ื˜ื™ ืขื ื™ื•ืœื™ื•ืก ื•ืขื ืืชืœ ืจื•ื–ื ื‘ืจื’ . ืืœืงื˜ืจื– ื ื—ืฉื‘ ืœื”ื•ื›ื—ื”, ืื‘ืœ ื‘- 1962 ื ืขืœืžื• ื”ืื—ื™ื ืื ื’ืœื™ืŸ ื•ืคืจื ืง ืžื•ืจื™ืก ืขืœ ืจืคืกื•ื“ื”. ืžื›ื™ื•ื•ืŸ ืฉื”ืžืขื‘ื•ืจืช ืขืœืชื” ืขืœ ืขืœื•ืชื ืฉืœ ื”ืืกื™ืจื™ื ื‘"ืจื™ืฅ", ื”ื™ื” ื–ื” ื‘ื•ื‘ื™ ืงื ื“ื™ โ€‹โ€‹ืฉื”ื•ืจื” ืจืฉืžื™ืช ืขืœ ืกื’ื™ืจืชื• ื‘- 1963.

ืžื—ื•ืฅ ืœื—ืกื•ื ื”ืชื, ืชื‘ื—ื™ืŸ ื’ืจืคื™ื˜ื™ ื—ืœืฉ ืขืœ ืžื’ื“ืœ ื”ืžื™ื ืฉืงื•ืจื "ื–ื•ื”ื™ ืื“ืžื” ื”ื•ื“ื™ืช". ื”ื”ืฆื”ืจื” ื”ื–ืืช ื ืžืกืจื” ืขืœ ื™ื“ื™ ืคืขื™ืœื™ื ืื™ื ื“ื™ืื ื™ื, ืฉื‘ื™ืงืฉืชื ืœื”ืคื•ืš ืืช ื‘ื™ืช ื”ื›ืœื ื”ืกื’ื•ืจ ืœืžืจื›ื– ืœื™ืžื•ื“ ืื™ื ื“ื™ืื ื™, ื ื“ื—ืชื” ืฉื•ื‘ ื•ืฉื•ื‘ ื‘ืฉื ื•ืช ื”ืฉื™ืฉื™ื.

ืœื‘ืกื•ืฃ, ืขืจื‘ ื—ื’ ื”ื”ื•ื“ื™ื”, 1969, 79 ืคืขื™ืœื™ื ืื™ื ื“ื™ืื ื™ื ืฉื‘ืจื• ืืช ื”ืžืฆื•ืจ ืขืœ ืžืฉืžืจ ื”ื—ื•ืคื™ื ื•ื”ืฉืชืœื˜ื• ืขืœ ืืœืงื˜ืจื– ื‘ืžื—ืื” ืขืœ ื”ืคืจืช ืืžื ื•ืช ื•ื”ืคืงืขืช ืงืจืงืขื•ืช ืž -106 ืงื‘ื•ืฆื•ืช ื™ืœื™ื“ื™ื•ืช. ื‘ืžื”ืœืš 19 ื”ื—ื•ื“ืฉื™ื ื”ื‘ืื™ื, ื› 5600 ื™ืœื™ื“ื™ื ืืžืจื™ืงืื™ื ื‘ื™ืงืจื• ื‘ืื™ ื”ื›ื‘ื•ืฉ, ืžื” ืฉื’ืจื ืœืคืขื™ืœื•ืช ืื™ื ื“ื™ืื ื™ืช ืืžืจื™ืงื ื™ืช. ืœืคื ื™ ื”- FBI ืชืคืก ืืช ื”ืื™ ื‘ืฉื ืช 1971, ืชืžื™ื›ื” ืฆื™ื‘ื•ืจื™ืช ืœื—ืฅ ื”ื ืฉื™ื ืจื™ืฆ'ืจื“ ื ื™ืงืกื•ืŸ ื›ื“ื™ ืœื”ื—ื–ื™ืจ ืืช ื”ืื–ื•ืจ ื”ื™ืœื™ื“ื™ื ื•ืœื—ื–ืง ืืช ืฉืœื˜ื•ืŸ ืขืฆืžื™ ืขื‘ื•ืจ ืžื“ื™ื ื•ืช ื”ื™ืœื™ื“ื™ื.

ื”ืžื—ืื” ืžื•ืงื“ืฉืช ื‘ื›ืชื•ื‘ื•ืช "ื›ื•ื— ืื“ื•ื" ืฉื ืžืฆืื” ื‘ืจื—ื‘ื™ ืืœืงื˜ืจื– ื•ื‘ืžืจื›ื– ื”ืขื™ื‘ื•ื“ ืฉืœ ื”ื“ื•ื›ืกื™ื“, ืฉื‘ื• ืžื•ืฆื’ ืกืจื˜ ื“ื•ืงื•ืžื ื˜ืจื™ ืขื˜ื•ืจ ืคืจืกื™ื ื•ื‘ื• ืชื™ืื•ืจื™ื ืžืžืงื•ืจ ืจืืฉื•ืŸ ืฉืœ ืžืคื’ื™ื ื™ื ื‘ื—ื“ืจ ืฆื“ื“ื™ ืงื˜ืŸ.

ืžืืžืจ ื–ื” ืคื•ืจืกื ื‘ืžืงื•ืจ ื‘ื—ื•ื“ืฉ ื™ื•ืœื™ 2010. ืžืืžืจ ื–ื” ื”ื™ื” ืจืขื ืŸ ื‘ื—ื•ื“ืฉ ืื•ื’ื•ืกื˜ 2012.

ืฉืชืฃ:

ื“ืคื™ื ื“ื•ืžื™ื

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