50 ื”ืืชืจื™ื ื”ื˜ื•ื‘ื™ื ื‘ื™ื•ืชืจ ืœื ืฉื™ืื•ืช ืืจื”"ื‘

50 ื”ืืชืจื™ื ื”ื˜ื•ื‘ื™ื ื‘ื™ื•ืชืจ ืœื ืฉื™ืื•ืช ืืจื”"ื‘

ื™ื•ื ื”ื ืฉื™ืื™ื: ื”ื—ื•ืคืฉื” ื”ืืกื˜ืจื˜ื’ื™ืช ืฉืœ ื™ื•ื ืฉื ื™ ื‘ืคื‘ืจื•ืืจ ื‘ืืจื”"ื‘, ื”ื ืžืฆืืช ื‘ืžืจื—ืง ืžื” ื‘ื™ืŸ ื™ื•ื ื”ื•ืœื“ืชื• ืฉืœ ื’'ื•ืจื’ 'ื•ื•ืฉื™ื ื’ื˜ื•ืŸ (22 ื‘ืคื‘ืจื•ืืจ) ื•ืื‘ืจื”ื ืœื™ื ืงื•ืœืŸ (12 ื‘ืคื‘ืจื•ืืจ). ื›ืœ ืืžืจื™ืงืื™ ื™ื•ื“ืข ืืช ื–ื” - ื‘ืขื™ืงืจ ืขื‘ื•ืจ ื™ื•ื ื—ื•ืคืฉ ืžื‘ื™ืช ื”ืกืคืจ ืื• ืขื‘ื•ื“ื” - ืื‘ืœ ืื™ืš ืืชื” ื—ื•ื’ื’?

ืจื•ื‘ ื”ืื ืฉื™ื ื”ื•ืœื›ื™ื ืœืจืื•ืช ืกืจื˜ ืื• ืœื‘ืœื•ืช ืขื•ื“ ื™ื•ื ืขืœ ืžื“ืจื•ื ื•ืช ื”ืกืงื™. ืื‘ืœ ื™ืฉ ืœืคื—ื•ืช ื“ื‘ืจ ื ืฉื™ืื•ืชื™ ืจืื•ื™ ืœืขืฉื•ืช ื‘ื›ืœ ืžื“ื™ื ื” ืฉืœ ืืจื”"ื‘.

ื”ื ื” ืจืฉื™ืžื” ืฉืœื ื• 50 ื‘ื•ื—ืจื™ื ืœืคื™ ืžื“ื™ื ื” (ื‘ืชื•ืกืคืช ื‘ื•ื ื•ืก ืขื‘ื•ืจ ืžื—ื•ื– ืงื•ืœื•ืžื‘ื™ื”):

ืืœื‘ืžื”

ืœื”ืจื™ ื˜ืจื•ืžืŸ ืื™ืŸ ื›ืืŸ ืืชืจ. "Dixiecrats" ื ื’ื“ ื”ื—ืงื™ืงื” ืฉืœื• ื–ื›ื•ื™ื•ืช ื”ืื–ืจื— ื”ืฆืœื™ื— ืœืฉืžื•ืจ ืื•ืชื• ืžื”ืฆื‘ืขื” ืœื ืฉื™ืื•ืช, ื›ืžื ื”ืœ, ื‘ืฉื ืช 1948. ืœืžื™ื“ืข ื ื•ืกืฃ ื‘ืžื•ื–ื™ืื•ืŸ ืฉืœ ืืœื‘ืžื” ื”ืžื—ืœืงื” ืœืืจื›ื™ื•ืŸ ื•ื”ื™ืกื˜ื•ืจื™ื”.

ืืœืกืงื”

ื”ื ืฉื™ื ื”ืจืืฉื•ืŸ ืœื‘ืงืจ ืืช ืืœืกืงื”, ื”ื’ื™ืข ื•ื•ืจืŸ ื”ืืจื“ื™ื ื’ ื‘ืฉื ืช 1923 ื›ื“ื™ ืœื”ืกื™ืข ืืช ืกืคื™ื™ืง ื”ื–ื”ื‘ ื”ืื—ืจื•ืŸ ืฉืœ ืจื›ื‘ืช ืืœืกืงื” ื‘ื’ืฉืจ ื”ื–ื™ื›ืจื•ืŸ ืžืžื™ืจืก ื‘ื ื ืื ื” (ื‘ื™ืŸ ื“ื ืœื™ ื•ืคื™ื™ืจื‘ื ืงืก); ื™ืฉ ืื•ืžืจื™ื ืฉื”ื•ื ื”ื—ืžื™ืฅ ืืช ืกืคื™ื™ืง ืขืœ ืฉื ื™ ื ื™ืกื™ื•ื ื•ืช ื”ืจืืฉื•ื ื™ื ืฉืœื•. ื›ืขื‘ื•ืจ ืฉื‘ื•ืขื™ื™ื ืžืช ื”ืืจื“ื™ื ื’.

ืืจื™ื–ื•ื ื”

ืกื›ืจ ื”ื•ื‘ืจ, ืกื›ืจ ื‘ื•ืœื“ืจ, ืกื›ืจ ื”ื•ื‘ืจ - ื–ื” ืคื—ื•ืช ืื• ื™ื•ืชืจ ืื™ืš ื ืขืœื ื”ืฉื ืฉืœ ื”ืกื›ืจ ื”ืžื“ื”ื™ื ื”ื–ื”, ืื ืฉื ื•ื™ ื‘ืžื—ืœื•ืงืช, ื‘ื’ื‘ื•ืœ ืืจื™ื–ื•ื ื” / ื ื‘ืื“ื”. ืคืจื ืงืœื™ืŸ ืจื•ื–ื•ื•ืœื˜, ืœืคื™ ื›ืžื” ื“ื™ื•ื•ื—ื™ื, ื”ื™ื” "ื”ื•ื‘ืจ" ืคื’ืข ื‘ืฉืžื• ืžืชื•ืš ื–ื“ื•ืŸ; ืฉืžื• ืฉืœ ื”ื•ื‘ืจ ืฉื•ื—ื–ืจ (ืœืื—ืจ ืžื•ืชื• ืฉืœ ืจื•ื–ื•ื•ืœื˜) ื‘ -1947. ืื’ื‘, ืœืฆื“ ืืจื™ื–ื•ื ื” ื™ืฉ ื—ื ื™ื” ื—ื™ื ื, ืื‘ืœ ืœื ื‘ืื“ื” ื™ืฉ โ€‹โ€‹ื—ื ื•ืช "ื˜ืจื™ืงื•", ืกื™ื•ืจื™ื ื•ืงืคื” ืจืข.

ืืจืงื ืกื•

ื‘ืœื™ื˜ืœ ืจื•ืง, ื‘ืžืจื›ื– ื”ื ืฉื™ืื•ืชื™ ืฉืœ ื•ื™ืœื™ืื ืงืœื™ื ื˜ื•ืŸ - ืขื‘ื•ืจ ื”ื‘ื—ื•ืจ ื”ื™ื“ื•ืข ื’ื ื‘ืฉื ื‘ื™ืœ - ื™ืฉ 80 ืžื™ืœื™ื•ืŸ ื“ืคื™ื ืฉืœ ืžืกืžื›ื™ื, ืฉื ื™ ืžื™ืœื™ื•ืŸ ืชืžื•ื ื•ืช, ื”ื™ื™, ืื—ืช ื”ื—ื•ืœืฆื•ืช ืฉืœ ืœืื ืก ืืจืžืกื˜ืจื•ื ื’. ื‘ื™ืœ ื”ื•ืœื“ืชื• ืฉืœ 100 SW ืฉืœ ืœื™ื˜ืœ ืจื•ืง ื‘ืขื™ืจ ื”ื•ืค ื ื•ืกืคื” ืœืื—ืจื•ื ื” ืœืžืขืจื›ืช ื”ืคืืจืง ื”ืœืื•ืžื™ ื›ืžื• ื‘ืฉื ืžื™ืœื” ื‘ืฉื ื•ื™ืœื™ืื ื’'ืคืจืกื•ืŸ ืงืœื™ื ื˜ื•ืŸ ืžืงื•ื ื”ื•ืœื“ืช ื”ื‘ื™ืช ื”ืœืื•ืžื™ ืืชืจ ื”ื™ืกื˜ื•ืจื™.

ืงืœื™ืคื•ืจื ื™ื”

ืจืง 15 ื“ืงื•ืช ืž ื“ื™ืกื ื™ืœื ื“ ื”ื•ื ืืชืจ ื ืฉื™ืื•ืชื™ ืžืกืงืจืŸ ืžื“ื™ ืœื ืกื•ืข ืขืœ ื™ื“ื™: ืจื™ืฆ'ืจื“ ื ื™ืงืกื•ืŸ ืฉืœ ืžืงื•ื ื”ื•ืœื“ืชื•, ืžื•ื–ื™ืื•ืŸ ื•ืกืคืจื™ื™ื”, ื‘ ื™ื•ืจื‘ื” ืœื™ื ื“ื”. ื›ื™ืฆื“ ืžื˜ืคืœ ืžืงื•ื ืฉื›ื–ื” ื›ื ืจืื” ื‘ื™ืฆื™ืืช ื”ืขื‘ื•ื“ื” ื”ื›ื™ ืคื—ื•ืช ื—ื›ืžื” ื‘ื”ื™ืกื˜ื•ืจื™ื” ื”ืคื•ืœื™ื˜ื™ืช ื”ืืžืจื™ืงื ื™ืช?

ืงื•ืœื•ืจื“ื•

ื”ืจื•ื˜ื•ื ื“ื” ืฉืœ ื”ืงืคื™ื˜ื•ืœ ืฉืœ ื”ืžื“ื™ื ื” ื‘ื“ื ื•ื•ืจ ืžืฆื™ื’ื” ื“ื™ื•ืงื ืื•ืช ืฉืœ ื›ืœ ื ืฉื™ืื™ ืืจื”"ื‘.

ืงื•ื ื˜ื™ืงื˜

ื”ื ืฉื™ื ื”ื™ื—ื™ื“ ืฉื ื•ืœื“ ื‘ืžื“ื™ื ืช ื”ื—ื•ืงื” ื”ื™ื” ื’'ื•ืจื’ 'ื‘ื•ืฉ, ืฉื ื•ืœื“ ื‘ื ื™ื• ื”ื™ื™ื‘ืŸ, ื•ื—ื™ ื‘ืงืฆืจื” ื‘ืคืจื‘ืจ ืฉืœ ื’ืจื™ื ื™ืฅ' ืฉื‘ืงื•ื ื˜ื™ืงื˜. ืžืกืคืจ ืžื’ื•ื—ืš ืฉืœ ืื ืฉื™ื ืžืคื•ืจืกืžื™ื ืื—ืจื™ื ื”ืชื’ื•ืจืจื• ืฉื, ืื ื›ื™ ืœื ื”ื™ื• ื‘ืงืชื•ืช ืขืฅ.

ื“ืœืื•ื•ืจ

ื‘ืจื ื“ื™ื•ื•ื™ื™ืŸ ืกืคืจื™ื ื’ืก ืคืืจืง ื‘ื•ื•ื™ืœืžื™ื ื’ื˜ื•ืŸ ื”ื•ื ื”ืžืงื•ื ืฉื‘ื• ื’ 'ื•ืจื’' ื•ื•ืฉื™ื ื’ื˜ื•ืŸ ื•ืืช ื”ืžืจืงื™ื– ื“ื” ืœืคืื™ื™ื˜ ื ืคื’ืฉื• ื›ื“ื™ ืœื“ื•ืŸ ื”ืงืจื‘ ืฉืœ Brandywine ืชื•ื›ื ื™ืช ื”ื”ืชืงืคื”. ื”ื™ื” ืฆืจื™ืš ืœื”ื—ื–ื™ืง ืžืขืžื“ ื–ืžืŸ ืจื‘ ื™ื•ืชืจ: ื”ืืžืจื™ืงื ื™ื ื”ืฆืœื™ืคื• ื•ื”ื•ืชื™ืจื• ืืช ืคื™ืœื“ืœืคื™ื” ืคืชื•ื—ื” ืœื”ืชืงืคื” ื‘ืจื™ื˜ื™ืช.

ืคืœื•ืจื™ื“ื”

ืื ื—ื ื• ื™ื•ื“ืขื™ื ืขืœ ื”ืžื˜ื•ืก ืฉืœ ื”ื ืฉื™ื, ืื‘ืœ ืžื” ืขื ื”ืจื›ื‘ืช? ื”ืžื›ื•ื ื™ืช ื”ืืžืจื™ืงื ื™ืช ืžืก '1 - ื‘ืžื•ื–ื™ืื•ืŸ ื”ืจื›ื‘ืช ืฉืœ ืžื™ืืžื™ ื’ื•ืœื“ ืงื•ืกื˜ - ื”ื™ืชื” ืžืขื‘ื•ืจืช ืฉืœ ืคื•ืœืžืŸ ืžืฉื ืช 1928, ืืฉืจ ื ื™ืชืงื” ืืช ืฆืจื›ื™ ื”ืชื—ื‘ื•ืจื” ื”ืจืืฉื•ื ื™ื ื‘ื™ืŸ ื”ืฉื ื™ื 1942 ืœ -1954. ื”ืคื ื™ื ืกื’ื•ืจื™ื ืœืฉื™ืคื•ืฅ, ืืš ื ื™ืชืŸ ืœืจืื•ืช ืืช ื”ืจืฆื™ืฃ ืฉื‘ื• ืขืžื“ ื˜ืจื•ืžืŸ ื›ื“ื™ ืœื”ื—ื–ื™ืง ืžืขืžื“ ื”ืžืคื•ืจืกื "ื“ื™ื•ืื™ ื”ืชื‘ื•ืกื•ืช ื˜ืจื•ืžืŸ" ืขื™ืชื•ื ืื™ ืขื™ืชื•ื ืื™ ื‘ืฉื ืช 1948.

ื’ืื•ืจื’ื™ื”

ืคืจื ืงืœื™ืŸ ืจื•ื–ื•ื•ืœื˜ ืฉื˜ืฃ ืœืจืืฉื•ื ื” ื‘ืžืขื™ื™ื ื•ืช ื”ื˜ื‘ืขื™ื™ื ืฉืœ ื•ื•ืจื ืกืคืจื™ื ื’ืก ื‘ืฉื ืช 1924 ื›ื“ื™ ืœื—ื–ืง ืืช ืขืฆืžื• ืžืคื•ืœื™ื• ื›ื“ื™ ืœืงื—ืช ื–ืจื™ืงื” ื‘ื•ื•ืฉื™ื ื’ื˜ื•ืŸ. ื–ื” ืขื‘ื“. ื”ื•ื ื™ื—ื–ื•ืจ ืขื“ ืžื•ืชื• ื‘ืฉื ืช 1945. ืืชื” ื™ื›ื•ืœ ืœื‘ืงืจ ื‘ืืชืจ ื”ื‘ื™ืช ื”ืœื‘ืŸ ื”ืงื˜ืŸ.

ื”ื•ื•ืื™

ืงื‘ืœ ื—ืจื•ื˜ ื’ืœื™ื“ื” ื‘ 1633 ื”ืžืœืš ืจื—ื•ื‘ ื‘ื”ื•ื ื•ืœื•ืœื• ืœื“ืžื™ื™ืŸ ืืช ื–ื” ื ืฉื™ื ื”ืžืฉืจืช ืื•ืชืš. ืขื‘ื•ื“ืชื• ื”ืจืืฉื•ื ื” ืฉืœ ื‘ืจืง ืื•ื‘ืžื” ื›ืขืฉืจื” ื”ื™ืชื” ื‘ื‘ืกืงื™ืŸ ืจื•ื‘ื™ื ืก - ืืชืจ ื”ื™ืกื˜ื•ืจื™ ื ืฉื™ืื•ืชื™ ื‘ืชื•ื ืœื‘.

ืื™ื™ื“ื”ื•

ื‘ื ื™ืžื™ืŸ ื”ืจื™ืกื•ืŸ ื”ื•ื“ื” ื‘ืื™ื“ื”ื• ืœืืจื”"ื‘ ื‘ -1890, ื•ืœืื—ืจ ืžื›ืŸ ื‘ื™ืงืจ ื‘ื ืกืข ืืœื•ืŸ ืžื—ื•ืฅ ืœืงืคื™ื˜ื•ืœ ื”ืžื“ื™ื ื” ื›ืขื‘ื•ืจ ืฉื ื”. ืœืžืจื‘ื” ื”ืฆืขืจ, ื”ืจื—ื‘ืช 2007 ืฉืœ ื”ื‘ื ื™ื™ืŸ ืคื™ืจื•ืฉื” ื”ืขื‘ืจืช B-ื”ืจ ืฉืœ ืืœื•ืŸ ืืœ ืœื™ื“ ืžื•ืกืš ื”ื—ื ื™ื” ื‘ 6 ืกื ื˜ Go ืœืจืื•ืช ืืช ื–ื”.

ืื™ืœื™ื ื•ื™

ืืชืจื™ื ืจื‘ื™ื ื ืžืฆืื™ื ืกื‘ื™ื‘ ืœื™ื ืงื•ืœืŸ-ืื•ื‘ืกืกื™ื‘ื™ ืกืคืจื™ื ื’ืคื™ืœื“ ื”ื ื‘ืžืจื›ื– ื”ืขื™ืจ walkable, ื›ื•ืœืœ ืœื™ื ืงื•ืœืŸ ื”ื‘ื™ืช, ืฉื‘ื• ืื™ื™ื‘ ื•ืžืจื™ ื—ื™ื• ืž 1844 ืขื“ 1861. ืื•ืœื™ ื”ื›ื™ ื‘ืœืชื™ ื ืฉื›ื— ืื ื›ื™ ื”ื•ื Lincoln ืฉืœ ืงื‘ืจ ื‘ื‘ื™ืช ื”ืกืžื•ืš Oak ืจื›ืก ืงื‘ืจื•ืช.

ืื™ื ื“ื™ืื ื”

ืœื™ื ืงื•ืœืŸ ื ื•ืœื“ ื‘ืงื ื˜ืงื™ ื•ืขืœื” ืœืชื”ื™ืœื” ื‘ืื™ืœื™ื ื•ื™, ืื‘ืœ ื”ื•ื ื’ื“ืœ ื‘ืื™ื ื“ื™ืื ื”. ื‘ืงืจ ืืช ืœื™ื ืงื•ืœืŸ Boyhood National Memorial, ืืจื‘ืขื” ืงื™ืœื•ืžื˜ืจื™ื ืžื“ืจื•ื ื“ื™ื™ืœ ื‘ืื–ื•ืจ ื”ื”ืจ ืื•ื”ื™ื• ื”ื”ืจ ื“ืจื•ืžื”.

ืื™ื•ื•ื”

ื”ืฉื ืฉืœื• ืชืžื™ื“ ื™ื”ื™ื” ืงืฉื•ืจ ืœ"ื”ื•ื•ืจื•ื•ื™ืœ" ืฉืœ ื”ืฉืคืœ ื”ื’ื“ื•ืœ, ืื‘ืœ ื”ืจื‘ืจื˜ ื”ื•ื‘ืจ ืœื ื”ื™ื” ื‘ื—ื•ืจ ืจืข. ื•ื‘ื™ืงื•ืจ ื‘ืžื•ื–ื™ืื•ืŸ ื‘ื‘ื™ืช ื”ื•ืœื“ืชื• ื‘ืžืขืจื‘ ืกื ื™ืฃ, ืžืžื–ืจื— ืœืื™ื•ื•ื” ืกื™ื˜ื™, ืžื“ื‘ืจ ืขืœ ื”ืžืืžืฆื™ื ื”ื”ื•ืžื ื™ื˜ืืจื™ื™ื ืฉืœืื—ืจ ืžืœื—ืžืช ื”ืขื•ืœื ื”ืจืืฉื•ื ื”, ืฉื›ื›ืœ ื”ื ืจืื” "ื”ืฆื™ืœื• ืืช ื‘ืœื’ื™ื”". ื‘ืกืš ื”ื›ืœ, ื”ืคืกืงื” ื™ืคื” ืœืžื“ื™ ืž- I-80.

ืงื ื–ืก

ื‘ื™ืชื• ืฉืœ ื“ื•ื•ื™ื™ื˜ ืื™ื™ื–ื ื”ืื•ืืจ, ื‘ื™ืช ื”ืกืคืจ, ื”ืžื•ื–ื™ืื•ืŸ ื•ื”ืกืคืจื™ื™ื” ื‘ืื•ื•ื™ืœื™ืŸ ื”ืจื•ืขืฉืช ืคืขื ืื—ืช, ื”ื•ื ื”ืงืœื” ื ืจื’ืฉืช ืžื”ืžื•ื ื•ื˜ื•ื ื™ื•ืช ืฉืœ I-70. ืœืชืคื•ืก ื›ืžื” ืขื•ื’ื™ื•ืช ืกื•ื›ืจ ื—ื™ื ื ื‘ืžืจื›ื– ื”ืžื‘ืงืจื™ื, ืขืฉื” ืขื ืืฉืชื• ืฉืœ ืื™ื™ืง ืžืชื›ื•ืŸ ืฉืœ ืžืืžื™.

ืงื ื˜ืงื™

ืื™ื™ื‘, ื™ื—ื“ ืขื ื ืฉื™ื ื”ืงื•ื ืคื“ืจืฆื™ื” ื’'ืคืจืกื•ืŸ ื“ื™ื™ื•ื•ื™ืก, ื ื•ืœื“ ื›ืืŸ. ื‘ื”ื•ื“ื’ื ื•ื•ื™ืœ, ื“ืจืš ื”ื•ื•ืื™ 61 ืžืœื•ืื™ืกื•ื•ื™ืœ, ืชื•ื›ืœื• ืœืฉื™ืจ ืืช ืื™ื™ื‘ ื‘ื™ื•ื ื”ื•ืœื“ืช 202 ืฉืžื— (ื ื›ื•ืŸ ืœ -12 ื‘ืคื‘ืจื•ืืจ) ื‘ืืชืจ ื”ื”ื™ืกื˜ื•ืจื™ ื”ืœืื•ืžื™ ื”ื”ื™ืกื˜ื•ืจื™ ืฉืœ ืื‘ืจื”ื ืœื™ื ืงื•ืœืŸ, ืขื ื‘ืงืชืช ืขืฅ ืžืฉื•ื—ื–ืจืช ืฉื›ืœ ื ืฉื™ื ืจืฆื” ืœืขืงื•ื‘ ืื—ืจื™ ืฉื ื•ืœื“ื• ื‘ื”.

ืœื•ืื™ื–ื™ืื ื”

ืชืฉืื™ืจ ืืช ื–ื” ืœื ื™ื• ืื•ืจืœื™ื ืก ืœื”ืฆื™ืข ืืช ื–ื”.ืื ื“ืจื• ื’'ืงืกื•ืŸ ื ืคื’ืฉ ื›ื‘ื™ื›ื•ืœ ืขื ื”ืคื™ืจืื˜ ื’'ื™ืŸ ืœืืคื™ื˜ ื‘ื‘ื™ืช ื”ืื‘ืกื™ื ื˜ ื”ื™ืฉืŸ ื‘ืจื—ื•ื‘ ื‘ื•ืจื‘ื•ืŸ ื›ื“ื™ ืœืฉืจื˜ื˜ ืืช ื”ืงืจื‘ (ืœื ื”ื›ืจื—ื™) ืฉืœ ื ื™ื• ืื•ืจืœื™ื ืก ื ื’ื“ ื”ื‘ืจื™ื˜ื™ื. ืœืžื™ ืื›ืคืช ืื ื–ื” ื ื›ื•ืŸ ืื—ืจื™ ื›ืžื” ืžืฉืงืื•ืช?

ืžื™ื™ืŸ

ืขื›ืฉื™ื•, ื‘ืกื›ื ืช ื”ืชืžื•ื˜ื˜ื•ืช, ื”ื˜ื‘ืจื ื” ืฉืœ ื’'ื“ ืคืจืื•ื˜ื™ ื‘ื‘ื•ืงืคื•ืจื˜ ืกื™ื™ืขื” ืœื ืฉื™ืื™ื ื”ืžื‘ืงืจื™ื ืœืงื‘ืœ ืขืฆื•ืช ืžืื– 1798. ื”ืฉืชื™ื™ื ื™ื ื”ืจืืฉื•ื ื™ื ื›ืœืœื• ืืช ืžืจื˜ื™ืŸ ื•ืืŸ ื‘ื•ืจืŸ, ืืช ื•ื™ืœื™ืื ื”ื ืจื™ ื”ืจื™ืกื•ืŸ ื•ืืช ื’'ื•ืŸ ื˜ื™ื™ืœืจ, ืœื ื‘ื“ื™ื•ืง ืžื™ ื‘ืคื•ืœื™ื˜ื™ืงื” ื”ืืžืจื™ืงืื™ืช, ืื‘ืœ ื”ื™ื™ ื–ืืช ื”ื™ืกื˜ื•ืจื™ื”.

ืžืจื™ืœื ื“

ืื™ืŸ ื–ื” ืกื‘ื™ืจ ืฉืชื–ืžื™ื ื• ื”ื–ืžื ื” ืœืงืžืค ื“ื™ื™ื•ื•ื™ื“, ื”ื ืกื™ื’ื” ืœื ืฉื™ืื•ืช ืžืื– ืฉื”- FDR ื”ื’ื“ื™ืจ ืื•ืชื”, ืื‘ืœ ื›ืœ ืื—ื“ ื™ื›ื•ืœ ืœื‘ืงืจ ืืช ืžื™ืงื•ืžื• ื‘ืคืืจืง ื”ืจ ืงื˜ื•ืงื˜ื™ืŸ, ื‘ืงืฆื” ื”ืžื–ืจื—ื™ ืฉืœ ื”ืจื™ ื‘ืœื• ืจื™ื“ื’ '.

ืžืกืฆ'ื•ืกื˜ืก

ื‘ื‘ืจื•ืงืœื™ืŸ, ื‘ืงืจื• ื‘ื‘ื™ืช ื”ืฆื ื•ืข ื‘ืŸ ืฉืœื•ืฉ ื”ืงื•ืžื•ืช ืฉื‘ื• ื ื•ืœื“ JFK ื‘ -1917, ื•ืฆืื• ืœืกื™ื•ืจ ืจื’ืœื™ ื‘ื”ื“ืจื›ื” ืขืฆืžื™ืช ื‘ืฉื›ื•ื ื” ื”ื™ืฉื ื” ืฉืœ ืงื ื“ื™.

ืžื™ืฉื™ื’ืŸ

ื ืฉื™ื ื‘ื•ื“ื“ ืฉืœ ืžื™ืฉื™ื’ืŸ, ืฉื—ืงืŸ ื›ื“ื•ืจื’ืœ ื•ื•ืœื‘ืจื™ืŸ ืขื ื ื˜ื™ื™ื” ืœื™ืคื•ืœ, ื ื•ืœื“ ืœืžืขืฉื” ืœืกืœื™ ืงื™ื ื’. ื‘ื ื‘ืจืกืงื”. ืื‘ืœ ื’ 'ืจืœื“ R ืžื•ื–ื™ืื•ืŸ ืคื•ืจื“ ื’ืจื ื“ Rapids ืฉื•ื•ื” ืœืจืื•ืช; ืคื•ืจื“ ื ืงื‘ืจ ื›ืืŸ ื•ื”ืžื•ื–ื™ืื•ืŸ ืขื•ืฉื” ืขื‘ื•ื“ื” ืžืฆื•ื™ื ืช ืžื›ืกื” ืืช ื”ืชืงื•ืคื” ื•ื•ื˜ืจื’ื™ื™ื˜ ืฉื”ื•ื‘ื™ืœ ืœื ืฉื™ืื•ืช ืงืฆืจื” ืฉืœื• ืœืื—ืจ ื”ืชืคื˜ืจื•ืชื• ืฉืœ ื ื™ืงืกื•ืŸ.

ืžื™ื ืกื•ื˜ื”

ืฉื ื™ื-ืขืฉืจ ื™ื•ื ืœืคื ื™ ื”ื”ืชื ืงืฉื•ืช ื‘ื•ื•ื™ืœื™ืื ืžืงื™ื ืœื™, ืกืžื ื›"ืœ ื”ืชื™ืื˜ืจื•ืŸ ืฉืœื• ืชื™ืื•ื“ื•ืจ ืจื•ื–ื•ื•ืœื˜ ืขืฉื” ืืช ื ืื•ืžื• ื”ืžืคื•ืจืกื ื‘ื™ื•ืชืจ - "ื“ื‘ืจ ื‘ืฉืงื˜ ื•ื™ืงื— ืžืงืœ ื’ื“ื•ืœ" - ื‘ื™ืจื™ื“ ื”ืžื“ื™ื ื” ืฉืœ ืžื™ื ืกื•ื˜ื”. ื“ื™ืคืœื•ืžื˜ื™ื” ืขื“ื™ื ื”, ืขื ืื™ื•ืžื™ื ืฆื‘ืื™ื™ื ืื•ืจื‘ื™ื. ื”ื•ื ื™ืกืชืคืง ื‘ื›ืš ื‘ืฉื ื™ื ื”ื‘ืื•ืช.

ืžื™ืกื™ืกื™ืคื™

ืืชืจ ื”ืื™ื ื˜ืจื ื˜ ืฉืœื” ืืคื™ืœื• ืœื ื™ื–ื›ื™ืจ ืืช ืฉืžื•, ืื‘ืœ ืื—ื•ื–ืช ืจื•ื–ืืœื™ ื‘ Natchez ืฉื™ืžืฉ ื”ืžืคืงื“ื” ืฉืœ Ulysses S ื’ืจื ื˜ ื‘ืžื”ืœืš ื”ืื™ื—ื•ื“ ืฉืœ ื ื™ืฆื—ื•ืŸ ืžื—ืจื•ื–ืช ืฉืœ ื ื™ืฆื—ื•ื ื•ืช ื‘ืฉื ืช 1863.

ืžื™ื–ื•ืจื™

ืžืžืฉ ืžื—ื•ืฅ ืœืงื ื–ืก ืกื™ื˜ื™, ื‘ื™ืช ื˜ืจื•ืžืŸ ื”ืขืฆืžืื•ืช (ืชื—ืช ืฉื™ืคื•ืฅ, ืื‘ืœ ืฆืจื™ืš ืœืคืชื•ื— ืื•ืชื• ืžื—ื“ืฉ ื‘ืื‘ื™ื‘) ื”ื•ื ื”ืžืงื•ื ืฉื‘ื•, ืืคืฉืจ ืœื•ืžืจ, "ื”ื‘ื ืง ื ืขืฆืจ" - ื”ืืจื™ ื•ืก ื”ืชื’ื•ืจืจื• ื›ืืŸ ืื—ืจื™ ื™ืžื™ ื”ื‘ื™ืช ื”ืœื‘ืŸ ืฉืœื•. ื™ืฉ ื’ื ืฉื‘ื™ืœ ื”ืœื™ื›ื” ื”ื™ืกื˜ื•ืจื™ 2.7 ืงื™ืœื•ืžื˜ืจ ืฉืœื•ืงื— ื‘ืžื•ื–ื™ืื•ืŸ ืฉืœื• ื•ืืช ืžื–ืจืงืช ืกื•ื“ื” ืฉื‘ื• ื”ื•ื ืขื‘ื“ ื”ืจืืฉื•ืŸ.

ืžื•ื ื˜ื ื”

ื‘ืžืขื‘ืจ ืžืืจื™ืืก, ื‘ืงืฆื” ื”ื“ืจื•ืžื™ ืฉืœ ื”ืคืืจืง ื”ืœืื•ืžื™ ืฉืœ ื”ืงืจื—ื•ืŸ ืขืœ Hwy 2 ื•ืขืœ ืงื• Amtrak, ืขื•ืžื“ ืื•ื‘ืœื™ืกืง ื’ืจื ื™ื˜ ื‘ืื•ืจืš 60 ืžื˜ืจื™ื, ืฉื ื‘ื ื” ืžืชื•ืš ืžื—ื•ื•ื” ืœืžื“ื™ื ื™ื•ืช ื”ื™ืขืจ ื”ืœืื•ืžื™ืช ืฉืœ ืชื™ืื•ื“ื•ืจ ืจื•ื–ื•ื•ืœื˜.

ื ื‘ืจืกืงื”

ื›ืžื” ืชืงื•ืคื•ืช ืฉืœ 16 ื™ื•ื ื—ืฉื•ื‘ื•ืช ื™ื•ืชืจ ืžืื—ืจื™ื, ื• -16 ื”ื™ืžื™ื ื”ืจืืฉื•ื ื™ื ืฉืœ ื’'ืจืœื“ ืคื•ืจื“ - ื”ื™ื—ื™ื“ื™ื ืฉื”ื•ื ื—ื™ ื‘ืื•ืžื”ื” - ื—ืฉื•ื‘ื™ื ืžืื•ื“ ืœืื•ืชื” ืขื™ืจ, ืฉืžื˜ืคืœืช ื‘ื ืฉื™ื ืฉื ื•ืœื“ื” ื‘ื ื‘ืจืกืงื”, ืžื™ืฉื™ื’ืŸ. ื‘ื™ืชื• ื”ืจืืฉื•ืŸ ื ืฉืจืฃ ื‘ืฉื ืช 1971, ืื‘ืœ ื™ืฉ ื’ืŸ ื•ืจื“ื™ื ืœื™ื“ืชื• ืฉืœ ืคื•ืจื“ ืœืจืื•ืช.

ื ื‘ืื“ื”

ืจืื” ืืจื™ื–ื•ื ื”.

ื ื™ื• ื”ืžืคืฉื™ื™ืจ

ืคืจื ืงืœื™ืŸ ืคื™ืจืก ื”ื•ื ื‘ื“ืจืš ื›ืœืœ ื‘ืžืจื•ืฅ ื”ืขืœื™ื•ืŸ ืขื‘ื•ืจ ื”ื ืฉื™ื ื”ื’ืจื•ืข ื‘ื™ื•ืชืจ ื‘ืืจื”"ื‘. ืฉืืœ ืœืžื” ื‘ื‘ื™ืช ืคืจื ืงืœื™ืŸ Homestead ื‘ ื”ื™ืœืกื‘ื•ืจื•.

ื ื™ื• ื’'ืจื–ื™

ืœืคื ื™ ื”ื‘ื•ืก, ื’ืจื•ื‘ืจ ื”ื™ืชื” ื”ืžื™ืœื” ื‘ื’'ืจื–ื™. ื”ื ืฉื™ื ื”ื—ืกื•ืŸ ื•ื”ืžื•ื—ืžื“ - ื•ื”ื™ื—ื™ื“ ืฉื™ืฉ ืœื• ืฉื ื™ ืชื ืื™ื ืœื ืจืฆื•ืคื™ื ืื• ืœื”ื™ื ืฉื ื‘ื‘ื™ืช ื”ืœื‘ืŸ - ื ื•ืœื“ ื‘ืงืืœื“ื•ื•ืœ, ืฉื ืชื•ื›ืœ ืœื‘ืงืจ ื‘ืžืงื•ื ื”ื•ืœื“ืชื• ืฉืœ ื’ืจื•ื‘ืจ ืงืœื™ื‘ืœื ื“.

ื ื™ื• ืžืงืกื™ืงื•

ืจื•ื‘ ื”ืจื•ื›ื‘ื™ื ื”ื’ืกื™ื, ืืœื” ื”ืจื•ื›ื‘ื™ื ื”ื’ืกื™ื ืฉืœ ื˜ื“ื™ ืจื•ื–ื•ื•ืœื˜, ื”ื’ื™ืขื• ืžืืจืฅ ื”ืงืกื, ื›ืคื™ ืฉื”ื•ื ืฆื—ื• ื‘ืื•ืกืฃ ื–ื” ืฉืœ ืžืขื“ื ื™ื ื‘ืœืืก ื•ื’ืืก. ื˜ื“ ืขืฆืžื• ื”ื’ื™ืข ืœืคื’ื™ืฉื” ื‘- 1901.

ื ื™ื• ื™ื•ืจืง

ื’ 'ื•ืจื’' ื•ื•ืฉื™ื ื’ื˜ื•ืŸ ื”ืคืš ืœื ืฉื™ื ื”ืจืืฉื•ืŸ ืฉืœ ืืจื”"ื‘ - ืœื ื‘ืคื™ืœื“ืœืคื™ื” ืื• DC, ืืœื ืขืœ ื•ื•ืœ ืกื˜ืจื™ื˜ ืฉืœ ื ื™ื• ื™ื•ืจืง. ื”ืื•ืœื ื”ืคื“ืจืœื™, ืขื ืคืกืœ ืฉืœ ื’ 'ื•ืจื’' ืžืœืคื ื™ื, ื”ื•ื ืืชืจ ื ืฉื™ืื•ืชื™ ืœืขืชื™ื ืงืจื•ื‘ื•ืช, ืื‘ืœ ืœื ืžื•ื‘ื ืช ื‘ืžื ื”ื˜ืŸ ื”ืชื—ืชื•ื ื”.

ืฆืคื•ืŸ ืงืจื•ืœื™ื™ื ื”

ืขื•ื‘ื“ื” ืฉืขืชื™ื“ ืœื”ืชืขืœื ืžืžื ื”: ื”ื ืฉื™ื ื‘ื‘ื™ืช ื”ืœื‘ืŸ ื›ืฉืžืœื—ืžืช ื”ืื–ืจื—ื™ื ื”ืกืชื™ื™ืžื” ื”ื™ืชื” ืžื“ืจื•ื. ืื ื“ืจื• ื’'ื•ื ืกื•ืŸ. ื‘ืงืจ ื”ืขืชืง ืฉืœ ืžืงื•ื ื”ื•ืœื“ืชื• ืฉืœ ืœื™ื ืงื•ืœืŸ ื™ื•ืจืฉื• ืฉืœ ืžืจื“ื›ื™ ืคืืจืง Raleigh.

ืฆืคื•ืŸ ื“ืงื•ื˜ื”

ื”ืžื“ื™ื ื” ื”ื™ื—ื™ื“ื” ืœืงื‘ืœ ืืฉืจืื™ ืœื ืฉื™ืื•ืช, ืžืœื‘ื“ ืžื“ื™ื ื” ื”ื ื“ื ื“ื” ื‘ื‘ื—ื™ืจื•ืช, ื”ื™ื ืฆืคื•ืŸ ื“ืงื•ื˜ื”, ืืฉืจ ืชืื•ื“ื•ืจ ืจื•ื–ื•ื•ืœื˜ ืžื–ื›ื” ืขืœ ืขืœื™ื™ืช ืฉืœื• ืœื‘ื™ืช ื”ืœื‘ืŸ (ืœื ืžืฉื ื” ืืช ื”ื”ืชื ืงืฉื•ืช ืฉืœ ื”ื‘ื•ืก ืฉืœื• ื•ื™ืœื™ืื ืžืงื™ื ืœื™ ื‘ืฉื ืช 1901). ืืชื” ื™ื›ื•ืœ ืœืจืื•ืช ืืช ื”ื‘ืงืชื” ืฉื‘ื” ื”ื•ื ื ืฉืืจ ืขืœ ื”ืจื“ื™ ืžืขืจื™ื›ื™ื ืžืื•ื“, ื—ื™ื•ืช ื‘ืจ ืขืฉื™ืจ ืฉืœ ื”ืคืืจืง ื”ืœืื•ืžื™ ืชื™ืื•ื“ื•ืจ ืจื•ื–ื•ื•ืœื˜.

ืื•ื”ื™ื•

ืžื›ืœ ืžืงื•ื, ืฉื‘ืขื” ื ืฉื™ืื™ื ื ื•ืœื“ื• ื‘ืื•ื”ื™ื• (ื’ืจื ื˜, ื”ื™ื™ื–, ื’ืืจืคื™ืœื“, ื‘ื ื’'ืžื™ืŸ ื”ืจื™ืกื•ืŸ, ืžืงื™ื ืœื™, ื˜ืืคื˜, ื”ืจื“ื™ื ื’) - ื•ื›ืืฉืจ ื•ื™ืจื’'ื™ื ื™ื” ืœื ืžืกืชื›ืœืช, ืื•ื”ื™ื• ืื•ื”ื‘ืช ืœืงืจื•ื ืœืขืฆืžื” 'ืื ื”ื ืฉื™ืื™ื'. (ืžืขื ื™ื™ืŸ ืœืฆื™ื™ืŸ: ืฉืœื•ืฉื” ืžืชื• ื‘ืžืฉืจื“, ืฉืœื•ืฉื” ื”ื™ื• ืื—ื“ termers ื•ื”ืฉื ื™ ืฉื™ื›ื•ืจ.) ืžื™ ืœื—ืœื•ืง? ื”ื™ื™ื–, ื‘ื”ื—ืœื˜ Rutherford ื‘ ื”ื™ื™ื–. ื‘ื—ื™ืจืชื• ื‘ื”ืฆื‘ืขื” ื”ื ืฉื™ืื•ืชื™ืช, ื›ื ืจืื” ื”ื ื—ืจืฆืช ื‘ื™ื•ืชืจ ื‘ืชื•ืœื“ื•ืช ืืจื”"ื‘, ื•ื”ืกืคืจื™ื™ื” ื”ื ืฉื™ืื•ืชื™ืช ืฉืœื• ื‘ืžื•ื–ื™ืื•ืŸ ืคืจื™ืžื•ื ื˜ - ื ืคืชื—ื” 23 ืฉื ื” ืื—ืจื™ ืžื•ืชื• - ื–ื• ื”ืคืขื ื”ืจืืฉื•ื ื”.

ืื•ืงืœื”ื•ืžื”

ืžื•ื–ื™ืื•ืŸ ื”ืงืื•ื‘ื•ื™ ื”ืœืื•ืžื™ ื•ื”ืžื•ื–ื™ืื•ืŸ ืœืžื•ืจืฉืช ื”ืžืขืจื‘ ื‘ืื•ืงืœื”ื•ืžื” ืกื™ื˜ื™ (ืขื™ืจ ืฉื›ื•ื ื” "ืจื™ืœ ืฆ'ื™ืœ") ื›ื•ืœืœ ืฉื ื™ ื ืฉื™ืื™ื ื‘ืื•ืœื ืฉืœ ื’ื™ื‘ื•ืจื™ ื”ืฆ'ืค-ืื ื“-ืกืคื™ืจ, ืจื•ื ืœื“ ืจื™ื™ื’ืŸ ื•ืื‘ืจื”ื ืœื™ื ืงื•ืœืŸ, ืขื ืคืกืœ ืžืขื™ืง ื‘ืžื™ื•ื—ื“ ืฉืœ ื”ื—ืฉื•ืฃ -Paced ืžืจืืฉ ืœื ืฉื™ืื•ืช ืœื™ื ืงื•ืœืŸ.

ืื•ืจื’ื•ืŸ

ื‘ืงืจ 'ื”ื•ื‘ืจ- Minthorn ื”ื‘ื™ืช' ื‘ื ื™ื•ื‘ืจื’, ืฉื ื”ื™ืชื•ื ื‘ืŸ ื” -11 ื”ื‘ืจื˜ ื”ื•ื‘ืจ ืขื‘ืจื” ืื™ื•ื•ื” ืœื—ื™ื•ืช ืขื ื”ื“ื•ื“ื” ื”ื–ืืช ื•ื“ื•ื“.

ืคื ืกื™ืœื‘ื ื™ื”

ื”ื ืื•ื ื”ื ืฉื™ืื•ืชื™ ื”ืžืคื•ืจืกื ื‘ื™ื•ืชืจ ื ืขืฉื” ื‘ื‘ื™ืช ื”ืงื‘ืจื•ืช ื”ืœืื•ืžื™ ืฉืœ ื’ื˜ื™ืกื‘ืจื’ ืขืœ ื™ื“ื™ ืื‘ืจื”ื ืœื™ื ืงื•ืœืŸ ื‘ -19 ื‘ื ื•ื‘ืžื‘ืจ 1863. ืงืจื ืืช ื”ื›ืชื•ื‘ืช ื”ืžืœืื” ื›ืืŸ. ืœื•ืงื— ืจืง ืจื’ืข.

ืจื•ื“ ืื™ื™ืœื ื“

ืจื•ืžื ื˜ื™ ืื•ื”ื“ื™ ื”ื ืฉื™ื, ืœื”ื‘ื™ื ืื•ืชืš ืืœ ื›ื ืกื™ื™ืช ืกื ื˜ ืžืจื™ ืฉืœ ื ื™ื•ืคื•ืจื˜, ืฉื JFK ื• ื’ 'ืงื™ ื ื™ืฉืื• ื‘ืฉื ืช 1953.

ื“ืจื•ื ืงืจื•ืœื™ื™ื ื”

ืืฃ ืื—ื“ ืœื ื‘ื˜ื•ื— 100 ืžื” ื”ืžื“ื™ื ื” ืื ื“ืจื• ื’ 'ืงืกื•ืŸ ื ื•ืœื“. ืžื‘ื—ื™ื ื” ื˜ื›ื ื™ืช ื‘ืื–ื•ืจ Waxhaws ืขืœ ื’ื‘ื•ืœ ืฆืคื•ืŸ ื•ื“ืจื•ื ืงืจื•ืœื™ื ื”, ืจื•ื‘ ืžืืžื™ื ื™ื ืกื•ื•ืื’ืจ ืฉืœื• ื ื•ื˜ื” ื“ืจื•ืžื”, ื›ืžื• ื’ื ื–ื›ื•ืช ื”ืœื™ื“ื” ืฉืœื•.ื”ืžื•ืจืฉืช ืฉืœื• ื›ืืŸ ืขื›ืฉื™ื• ื”ื•ื ื—ื•ืœืง ืขืœ ื™ื“ื™ ืื ื“ืจื• ื’ 'ืงืกื•ืŸ ืžื“ื™ื ืช ืคืืจืง.

ื“ืจื•ื ื“ืงื•ื˜ื”

ื”ื’ื‘ืขื•ืช ื”ืฉื—ื•ืจื•ืช ืฉืœื” - ืžืงื•ื ืœื˜ืงืกื™ื ืฉืœ ืกื™ื•, ืœื˜ืขื™ื™ื”, ืœืžืœื—ืžื•ืช, ืœืžื”ืจ ื–ื”ื‘, ื•ืžืื•ื—ืจ ื™ื•ืชืจ, ืื ืฉื™ ืื‘ืŸ. ื‘ื™ืŸ 1927 ืœ -1941, ื”ืจ ืจืืฉืžื•ืจ ื”ื•ื ืืชืจ ื ืฉื™ื ืืžืจื™ืงื ื™ ืžื•ื‘ื”ืง - ื•ื”ืคืกื˜ื™ื‘ืœื™ื ืฉืœ ื•ื•ืฉื™ื ื’ื˜ื•ืŸ, ื’'ืคืจืกื•ืŸ, ืœื™ื ืงื•ืœืŸ ื•ืชื™ืื• ืจื•ื–ื•ื•ืœื˜ ืขื•ืฉื™ื ืจื•ืฉื ืฉื™ื•ืชืจ ื™ื—ืฉื‘ื•. ืœืื—ืจ ืžื›ืŸ ืœืงื‘ืœ ืคืื“ื’ 'ื‘ Keystone ืชื™ื™ืจื•ืชื™.

ื˜ื ืกื™

ืžื—ื•ืฅ ืœื ืฉื•ื•ื™ืœ, ื‘ื™ืชื• ืฉืœ ืื ื“ืจื• ื’'ืงืกื•ืŸ (ื”ืจืžื™ื˜ืื– ') ื—ื•ืฉืฃ ืงืฆืช ืžืื—ื•ืจื™ ื”ืงืœืขื™ื ืžืื“ื ืฉื–ื›ื” ื‘ื ื™ื• ืื•ืจืœื™ื ืก ืžื”ื‘ืจื™ื˜ื™ื ืœืื—ืจ ื”ืžืœื—ืžื” ืฉืœ 1812 ื”ืกืชื™ื™ืžื”, ื•ื”ืฉื™ืง ืงืฆืช ื›ืฉืจื•ืŸ ืžืชืื‘ืงื™ื ื‘ื–ืžืŸ ืฉื”ื™ื” ื‘ื•ื•ืฉื™ื ื’ื˜ื•ืŸ.

ื˜ืงืกืก

ืจื•ื‘ ื”ืžืงื•ืžื™ื™ื ื”ื™ื• ื ื•ืชื ื™ื ืืช ื”ื ืฉื™ืื•ืช ืœื ืฉื™ื ื˜ืงืกืก "ื ืฉื™ื ืกื ื™ื•ืกื˜ื•ืŸ - ืื•ืœื™ ืขื‘ื•ืจ ืกืŸ ืœื” ื—ืกื™ื“ื™ ืกืืŸ Jacinto ืžื•ื ื•ืžื ื˜, ืฉื‘ื• ื”ื ืฉื™ืื” ื”ืขืชื™ื“ ืกื ื™ื•ืกื˜ื•ืŸ ืฆืขืง" ื–ื•ื›ืจ ืืช ืืœืืžื• "ื‘ืฉื ืช 1836, ืื• ื”ืื ื˜ืกื•ื•ื™ืœ ืกื ื™ื•ืกื˜ื•ืŸ ื”ื–ื™ื›ืจื•ืŸ. ื–ื” ื™ื›ื•ืœ ืœื”ื™ื•ืช ืงืฆืช ืžืงืื‘ืจื™, ืื‘ืœ ื ืฆื‘ื™ืข ืขื ื”ืืชืจ ืฉืœ ื”ื”ืชื ืงืฉื•ืช ืฉืœ JFK ื‘ื“ืืœืืก, ื‘ืžื™ื•ื—ื“ ืขื‘ื•ืจ ืžื•ื–ื™ืื•ืŸ ื”ืงื•ืžื” ื”ืฉื™ืฉื™ืช ืžืจืชืง, ืœื”ื’ื“ื™ืจ ืืช ืกืคืจ ื”ืคืงื“ื” ื”ืžืคื•ืจืกื ื”ืžืคื•ืจืกื ื‘ -22 ื‘ื ื•ื‘ืžื‘ืจ 1963.

ื™ื•ื˜ื”

Ulysses S Grant ืคืขื ื ืฉืืจ ื‘ื‘ื™ืช ื”ื™ืฉืŸ ืฉืœ ื‘ืจื™ื’ื”ื ื™ืื ื’ ื›ื•ื•ืจืช ื‘ื™ืช, ืžืขื•ื˜ืจ ื‘ืชืงื•ืคื” - ื–ื” ืžื™ืŸ ืœื ืฉื™ืื•ืช.

ื•ืจืžื•ื ื˜

ื‘- 1923 ื ืฉื‘ืข ืกื’ืŸ ื”ื ืฉื™ื ืงืœื•ื•ื™ืŸ ืงื•ืœื™ื“ื’' ืœื ืฉื™ืื•ืช, ืขืœ ื™ื“ื™ ืื‘ื™ื•, ื‘ื›ืคืจ ื’ืœื•ื™ื•ืช ืžื•ืฉืœื ื‘ืขืžืง ืžืจื•ื—ืง. ืกื™ื•ืจื™ื ืžื•ื“ืจื›ื™ื ื™ื•ืชืจ ืžื”ื ื”ื ื™ื ืžื”ื‘ื™ืช ืฉืœ ืงืœื•ื•ื™ืŸ ื‘ืคืœื™ืžื•ืช 'ื ื•ืฅ' ืœื•ืงื—ื™ื ืกื“ืจื” ืฉืœ ืžื‘ื ื™ื ื”ื™ืกื˜ื•ืจื™ื™ื ืฉื ืจืื™ื ื™ืฉืจ ืžืชื•ืš ืฉื ื•ืช ื”ืขืฉืจื™ื (ื›ื™ ื”ื).

ื•ื™ืจื’'ื™ื ื™ื”

ื”ืžื“ื™ื ื” ื ืชื ื” ืœื ื• ืฉืžื•ื ื” ื ืฉื™ืื™ื, ื•ืื”ืื ืืช ื”ื ืฉื™ืื™ื ืฉืœ ืคืืจืง ื•ื™ืœื™ืืžืกื‘ื•ืจื’, ืื‘ืœ ื”ืขืœื™ื•ืŸ ืฉื‘ื”ื ื”ื•ื ื”ื‘ื™ืช ื”ืžื•ื–ื™ืงืœื™ ื•ื”ืื™ื˜ืœืงื™ ืฉืœ ืชื•ืžืก ื’'ืคืจืกื•ืŸ, ืžื•ื ื˜ื™ืงืœื•, ื‘ืฉืืจืœื•ื˜ืกื•ื•ื™ืœ, ืฉื›ื•ื ื” "ื‘ื™ืชื• ืฉืœ ื”ื ื™ืงืœ". ื’ื™ื‘ื•ื™ ืžืขื ื™ื™ืŸ ื”ื•ื ื”ืงื•ื ืคื“ืจืฆื™ื” ื”ื‘ื™ืช ื”ืœื‘ืŸ ื‘ืจื™ืฆ'ืžื•ื ื“.

ื•ื•ืฉื™ื ื’ื˜ื•ืŸ

Ulysses S ื’ืจื ื˜ ืžื•ื˜ืœ ืขืœ ืฉื•ืจืช ืงืฆื™ื ื™ื ื‘ืคื•ืจื˜ ื•ื ืงื•ื‘ืจ ืœืคื ื™ ืฉื”ื•ื ืœืงื— ืืช ื•ื™ืงืกื‘ื•ืจื’ - ื‘ื™ืช ื’ืจื ื˜ ื”ืžื™ื•ืขื“ ื ื‘ื ื” ืœื›ื‘ื•ื“ื• ื–ืžืŸ ืจื‘ ืœืื—ืจ ืžื›ืŸ.

ื•ื•ืฉื™ื ื’ื˜ื•ืŸ

ื–ื” ืžืงื“ืฉ ืฉืœ ืื ื“ืจื˜ืื•ืช ืœื ืฉื™ืื•ืช, ืฉืœื ืœื“ื‘ืจ ืขืœ ื‘ื™ืช ื”ื ืฉื™ื. ื’ 'ืคืจืกื•ืŸ ื”ื•ื ื ื—ืžื“, ืื‘ืœ ืืฃ ืื—ื“ ืœื ื™ื›ื•ืœ ืœื”ืฉื•ื•ืช ืขื ืœื˜ืคืก ื‘ืžืขืœื” ื”ืžื“ืจื’ื•ืช ื›ื“ื™ ืœื”ืขืจื™ืฅ ืืช ื ื—ื™ืฉื•ืชื• ืฉืœ ืื™ื™ื‘ ืืœืžื•ืชื™ ืขืœ ื”ื–ื™ื›ืจื•ืŸ ืœื™ื ืงื•ืœืŸ.

ืžืขืจื‘ ื•ื™ืจื’'ื™ื ื™ื”

ื›ืœ ื ืฉื™ื ืžื“ื•ื•ื™ื™ื˜ ืื™ื™ื–ื ื”ืื•ืืจ ืœ- W (ื’'ื•ืจื’ 'ื‘ื•ืฉ) ื ืฉืืจ ื‘ืกื•ื•ื™ื˜ื” ื”ื ืฉื™ืื•ืชื™ืช ืฉืœ "ื’ืจื™ื ื‘ืจื™ื™ืจ", ืฆื™ื•ืŸ ื“ืจืš ื”ื™ืกื˜ื•ืจื™ ื”ื™ืกื˜ื•ืจื™ ื‘ื•ื•ื™ื™ื˜ ื’ื•ืคืจื™ืช ืกืคืจื™ื ื’ืก (ื•ื‘ื™ืช ื”ืžืœื•ืŸ ืžืฉื ืช 1778). ื•ื›ืŸ, ื”ื™ื™, ื”ืžืœื•ืŸ ื–ืจืง ืžืกื™ื‘ื” ืขื‘ื•ืจ 'ื ืฉื™ื ocho' ืžืจื˜ื™ืŸ ื•ืืŸ ื‘ื•ืจืŸ ื‘ืฉื ืช 1837.

ื•ื™ืกืงื•ื ืกื™ืŸ

ืฉืžื• ืฉืœ ื”ื ืฉื™ื ื”ืจื‘ื™ืขื™ ื’'ื™ื™ืžืก ืžื“ื™ืกื•ืŸ, ื‘ื™ืจืช ื”ืžื“ื™ื ื” ืžื“ื™ืกื•ืŸ ื›ื ืจืื” ื”ื™ื” ื”ืžืงื•ื ืขื‘ื•ืจ ืืœื” ืขื ืงืฉืจื™ื ืœื ืฉื™ืื•ืช ืœืจื“ืช ืขืœ ื™ื“ื™ ื’ื™ืœื•ื— ืžืขืจื‘ื™. ืงืจื ืืช ื–ื” ื›ื™ืฃ 1922 ื”ื—ืฉื‘ื•ืŸ ืฉืœ ื”ืกืคืจ ื”ืขืชื™ืง ื‘ื™ื•ืชืจ ืฉืœ ื”ืขื™ืจ ื‘ืื•ืชื” ืชืงื•ืคื”, ืืฉืจ ื’ื™ืœื—ื• ื›ืžื” ื ืฉื™ืื™ื ืขืชื™ื“ื™ื™ื ื‘ืžืœื•ืŸ ืคืืจืง (ืขื›ืฉื™ื• ื”ืžืขืจื‘ื™ ื”ื˜ื•ื‘ ื‘ื™ื•ืชืจ). ื”ื ืื•ืžืจื™ื ืœื™ ืฉื™ืฉ ืกืœื•ืŸ ืกืžื•ืš, ืื‘ืœ ืขื‘ื•ืจ 'ื’ื™ืœื•ื— ื‘ื™ืช ื”ืกืคืจ ื”ื™ืฉืŸ' ืœืœื›ืช ืœืงื•ืœื’ 'ื‘ืจื‘ืจ ื—ื ื•ืช ื‘ืจื—ื•ื‘ ืกื ื˜.

ื•ื™ื•ืžื™ื ื’

ืจืื” ืกืœืข ืื‘ืŸ ื—ื•ืœ ื›ื™ ืขืœ ื ืคื™ืœื” ืœื ืฉื™ืื•ืช. ืขื“ ืฉื•ื•ื˜ืจื’ื™ื™ื˜ ื”ืชื’ืœื’ืœ ืžืกื‘ื™ื‘, ืžืœืš ื”ืฉืขืจื•ืจื™ื•ืช ืœื ืฉื™ืื•ืช ืจื™ื—ืฃ ืžืขืœ ืฉื•ื—ื“ ืฉืœ ืฉื“ื•ืช ื ืคื˜ ืฉืฉืžื• ืขืœ ืฉืžื• ืฉืœ ื˜ื™ืงื•ื˜ ืจื•ืง ื‘ื’ื•ื‘ื” ืžื˜ืจ ื•ื—ืฆื™, 25 ืง"ืž ืฆืคื•ื ื™ืช ืœืงืกืคืจ (ืขืœ ื›ื‘ื™ืฉ Hwy 239 ื“ืจืš I-25). ื”ื ืฉื™ื ื•ื•ืจืŸ ื”ืืจื“ื™ื ื’, ืฉื ื—ืฉื‘ ืœืื—ื“ ื”ื ืฉื™ืื™ื ื”ื’ืจื•ืขื™ื ื‘ื™ื•ืชืจ ื‘ืžื“ื™ื ื”, ืžืช ืžืžื—ืœืช ืœื‘ ืžืกืชื•ืจื™ืช ื‘- 1923 ื”ืจื‘ื” ืœืคื ื™ ืฉื”ืฉืขืจื•ืจื™ื™ื” ืฉื›ื›ื”, ืื‘ืœ ืื—ื“ ืžื—ื‘ืจื™ ื”ืงื‘ื™ื ื˜ ืฉืœื• ื ื›ืœื ื‘ืกื•ืคื• ืฉืœ ื“ื‘ืจ.

ืกืคืจ ืืจื”"ื‘

ืืชืจื™ื ื ืฉื™ืื•ืชื™ื™ื ื”ื ื”ืชื—ืœื”, ืื‘ืœ ื™ืฉ ื”ืจื‘ื” ื™ื•ืชืจ ืขื‘ื•ืจ ืืจื”"ื‘ ืขื‘ื•ืจ ืžื˜ื™ื™ืœื™ื ืœื—ืงื•ืจ. ืฉืœ ืœื•ื ืœื™ ืคืœืื ื˜ ืกืคืจ ืืจื”"ื‘ ื”ื™ื ืชืžื•ื ื” ื—ื“-ืคืขืžื™ืช, ืžืงื™ืคื”, ื”ืžืงื™ืคื” ืืช ื›ืœ ืงืฆื•ื•ืช ืืจืฆื•ืช ื”ื‘ืจื™ืช ื•ืฉื˜ื—ื”.

ืฉืชืฃ:

ื“ืคื™ื ื“ื•ืžื™ื

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