ื”ืžืกืข ื”ื”ื™ืกื˜ื•ืจื™ ื”ื’ื“ื•ืœ ื‘ื™ื•ืชืจ: ื—ืœืง ืฉื ื™

ื”ืžืกืข ื”ื”ื™ืกื˜ื•ืจื™ ื”ื’ื“ื•ืœ ื‘ื™ื•ืชืจ: ื—ืœืง ืฉื ื™

ื‘ืชืฉืœื•ืžื™ื ื”ืฉื ื™ ื ืœืงื— Lonely Planet ืฉืœ ื—ื•ื•ื™ื•ืช, ืื ื—ื ื• ืžืกืชื›ืœื™ื ืขืœ ืขื•ื“ ืฉืœื•ืฉื” ืžืกืขื•ืช ื”ื™ืกื˜ื•ืจื™ื™ื ื’ื“ื•ืœื™ื. ืื– ืœืืจื•ื– ืืช ื”ืžืฆืคืŸ ืฉืœืš, ืœื ืขื•ืœ ืืช ื”ื—ืžื•ืจ ืฉืœืš ื•ืœืฆืืช ืืœ ื”ืฉื‘ื™ืœื™ื ืฉืœ ื”ื ื•ืกืขื™ื ื”ืžืคื•ืจืกืžื™ื ื”ืืœื”.

ืฆ 'ืืจืœืก ื“ืจื•ื•ื™ืŸ: ืžืกืข ืฉืœ ื‘ื™ื’ืœ

ื—ื•ืงืจ ื”ื˜ื‘ืข ื”ื‘ืจื™ื˜ื™ ืฆ'ืืจืœืก ื“ืจื•ื•ื™ืŸ ื”ืคืœื™ื’ ื‘ -1831 ื‘ืื•ื“ื™ืกื™ืื” ื‘ืช ื—ืžืฉ ืฉื ื™ื ืขืœ ื’ื‘ื™ ื”- HMS ื‘ื™ื’ืœ ื›ื“ื™ ืœืฆืคื•ืช ื•ืœืชืขื“ ืืช ื”ืกื‘ื™ื‘ื” ื”ื˜ื‘ืขื™ืช. ืฉืึถืœื•ึน ื™ื•ืžืŸ ื•ื“ื‘ืจื™ื ื™ืฆื ืœืื•ืจ ื‘ืฉื ืช 1839 ื•ื”ื•ื ื™ื“ื•ืข ื‘ื›ื™ื ื•ื™ื• 'ื”ืžืกืข ืฉืœ ื”ื‘ื™ื’ืœ'. ื”ื•ื ื ืกืข ืœื“ืจื•ื ืืžืจื™ืงื”, ืื™ื™ ื’ืœืคื’ื•ืก, ื˜ื”ื™ื˜ื™ ื•ืื•ืกื˜ืจืœื™ื” ืœืคื ื™ ืฉื•ื‘ื• ื”ื‘ื™ืชื” ื“ืจืš ืื™ื™ ืงื™ืœื™ื ื’. ืจืฉื™ืžื•ืชื™ื• ืขืœ ื”ื‘ื™ื•ืœื•ื’ื™ื”, ื”ื’ื™ืื•ืœื•ื’ื™ื” ื•ื”ืื ืชืจื•ืคื•ืœื•ื’ื™ื” ื”ื™ื•, ื‘ืžื‘ื˜ ืœืื—ื•ืจ, ื”ืžื‘ืฉืจื™ื ืœืจืขื™ื•ื ื•ืชื™ื• ื”ืžืฉืชื ื™ื ืขืœ ื”ืื‘ื•ืœื•ืฆื™ื”.

ืœื”ืกืชื‘ืš ืขื ืคืจื•ื™ืงื˜ ื‘ื™ื’ืœ, ืฉืžื˜ืจืชื” ืœื‘ื ื•ืช ื”ืขืชืง ืฉืœ HMS Beagle ื•ืœื—ื–ื•ืจ ื”ืžืกืข ื”ืืคื™ ืฉืœ ื“ืจื•ื•ื™ืŸ.

ืืœื›ืกื ื“ืจ ื”ื’ื“ื•ืœ

ืขืœ ื™ื“ื™ ืื—ืจื™ื, "ื’ืจื•ื˜ืกืงื”" ื‘ืขื™ื ื™ ืื—ืจื™ื, ืืœื›ืกื ื“ืจ ื”ืฉืœื™ืฉื™ ื”ื™ื” ื›ื›ืœ ื”ื ืจืื” ื”ืžืคืงื“ ื”ืฆื‘ืื™ ื”ืžืฆืœื™ื— ื‘ื™ื•ืชืจ ืฉืœ ื”ืขื•ืœื ื”ืขืชื™ืง (ื•ื”ื–ืžืŸ ื”ืžื•ื“ืจื ื™). ื›ื™ื‘ืฉื™ื• ืœืงื— ืื•ืชื• ื•ืืช ืฆื‘ืื•ืชื™ื• ืขืœ ืคื ื™ 16 ืžื“ื™ื ื•ืช ืžื™ื•ื•ืŸ ืœื”ื•ื“ื•. ืชืงื•ืคืช ื”ื›ื™ื‘ื•ืฉ ืฉืœ ืืœื›ืกื ื“ืจ ื ืžืฉื›ื” ื›ืžืขื˜ ืขืฉื•ืจ ื•ื›ืœืœื” ืืช ื”ืชื‘ื•ืกื” ืฉืœ ื”ืื™ืžืคืจื™ื” ื”ืคืจืกื™ืช ื•ื”ืคืœื™ืฉื” ืœื”ื•ื“ื•. ื•ื”ื•ื ืขืฉื” ื–ืืช ืขืœ ืกื•ืก ืงืกืžื™ื, ื‘ื™ืŸ ื—ื™ื“ื•ืช ืžื™ืชื•ืœื•ื’ื™ื•ืช ืžืชื ื’ืฉื•ืช, ืื™ื‘ื“ ื™ื“ื™ื“ื™ื ื•ืื•ื”ื‘ื™ื, ื•ื”ื•ื›ืจื– ื›ืืœ ื•ืžืฉื—ืชืช.

ื”ืชื—ืœ ื‘ืคืœื”, ืฉื ื ื•ืœื“ ืืœื›ืกื ื“ืจ; ืคืกื™ืคืกื™ื ืžืŸ ื”ืืจืžื•ืŸ ื”ื ืขื“ื™ื™ืŸ ืฉืœื. ื‘ืžื•ื–ื™ืื•ืŸ ืคืœื” ื™ืฉ ื—ืคืฆื™ ืืžื ื•ืช ืžืืชืจื™ื ืืจื›ื™ืื•ืœื•ื’ื™ื™ื ืžืงื•ืžื™ื™ื.

ืžืจืงื• ืคื•ืœื•

ื”ื ืกื™ืขื” ื”ื™ืชื” ื‘ื“ื ืขื‘ื•ืจ ืžืจืงื• ืคื•ืœื• (1254-1324), ืฉืื‘ื™ื• ื”ื™ื” ื’ื ื—ื•ืงืจ ื™ื“ื•ืข. ื™ืœื™ื“ ื•ื ืฆื™ื”, ื”ืคืœื™ื’ ืžืจืงื• ืœืื•ืจืš ื”ื—ื•ืฃ ื”ืžืขืจื‘ื™ ืฉืœ ื™ื•ื•ืŸ ืœื˜ื•ืจืงื™ื”, ื•ืขืงื‘ ื‘ื“ืจืš ื”ืžืฉื™ ื“ืจืš ื”ืžื–ืจื— ื”ืชื™ื›ื•ืŸ ื•ืžืจื›ื– ืืกื™ื” ืœืกื™ืŸ. ื™ืฉ ื›ืžื” ื”ืฉืขืจื•ืช ืœื’ื‘ื™ ื”ื™ืงืฃ ื”ื ืกื™ืขื•ืช ืฉืœ ืžืจืงื• (ืืฉืจ ื”ื•ื ืฉื ืขืœ 39,000 ืง"ืž), ืขื ื”ืกืคืงื ื™ื ืžืืฉื™ืžื™ื ืื•ืชื• ืœื”ื™ื•ืช ืžืฉื”ื• ืฉืœ ืกื™ื‘ื™. ื”ืื ื”ื ืคืฉื•ื˜ ืžืงื ืื™ื?

ืœื”ื™ื•ืช ื‘ื”ืฉืจืืช ืฉื ื™ ื™ื•ืฆืจื™ ืกืจื˜ื™ื ืืฉืจ retraced ืืช ื›ืœ ื”ืžืกืข 40,000 ืง"ืž. ื‘ื—ืจ ืืช ื ืงื•ื“ืช ื”ืžื•ืฆื ืฉืœืš ืœืื•ืจืš ื”ืžืกืœื•ืœ ื”ืžืงื•ืจื™ ืฉืœ ืžืจืงื•.

ื’ืœื” ืžื˜ื™ื™ืœื™ื ืคืจืื™ื™ื ื™ื•ืชืจ ื‘ื—ืœืง ืื—ื“ ื•ื—ืœืง ืฉื ื™ ืฉืœ ืกื“ืจื” ื–ื• ืฉืœื•ืฉื” ื—ืœืงื™ื.

ืฉืœ ืœื•ื ืœื™ ืคืœืื ื˜ ื”ืžืกืข ื”ื’ื“ื•ืœ ืžืฆื™ื’ ื™ื•ืชืจ ืž 70 ืฉืœ ื”ืžืกืขื•ืช ื”ื’ื“ื•ืœื™ื ื‘ื™ื•ืชืจ ืฉืืชื” ื™ื›ื•ืœ ืœื‘ืฆืข, ืž ืฉื‘ื™ืœื™ื ืขืชื™ืงื™ื, ื›ืžื• ืžืืฆ 'ื• ืคื™ืฆ' ื•, ืขื“ ืงืœืืกื™ื™ื ื”ืžื•ื“ืจื ื™ืช, ื›ืžื• ื›ื‘ื™ืฉ 66.

ืฉืชืฃ:

ื“ืคื™ื ื“ื•ืžื™ื

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