ื”ื”ืจื™ื ืฉืœ ืื™ื ื“ื•ื ื–ื™ื” ืฉืœ ืืฉ

ื”ื”ืจื™ื ืฉืœ ืื™ื ื“ื•ื ื–ื™ื” ืฉืœ ืืฉ

ื‘ืขื•ื“ ื”ืจื™ ื”ื’ืขืฉ ืฉืœ ืื™ื ื“ื•ื ื–ื™ื” ืžืชื•ืืจื™ื ืœืขืชื™ื ืงืจื•ื‘ื•ืช ื‘ื™ื•ืคื™ื™ื ืฉืœ ืคืกื’ื•ืชื™ื”ื ื”ืžืจื”ื™ื‘ื•ืช, ื”ืžื›ืชืฉื™ื ื”ืžื”ื‘ื™ืœื™ื ื•ื”ื ื•ืฃ ืฉืœ ื”ืœื™ื‘ื” ื”ืชื•ืกืกืช ืฉืœ ื›ื“ื•ืจ ื”ืืจืฅ, ื”ืจ ืžืืจืืคื™, ื”ืคืขื™ืœ ื‘ื™ื•ืชืจ ื‘ืžื“ื™ื ื”, ืชืคืก ืืช ืžืจื›ื– ื”ื‘ืžื” ื‘ืื•ืงื˜ื•ื‘ืจ ื”ืฉื ื” ื›ืชื–ื›ื•ืจืช ื‘ืจื•ืจื” ืœืคืขื™ืœื•ืชื ื”ืงื˜ืœื ื™ืช. ืจื‘ื™ื ืžื”ืจื™ ื”ื’ืขืฉ ืฉืœ ืื™ื ื“ื•ื ื–ื™ื” ืžืชืคืจืฆื™ื, ืœืคืขืžื™ื ืขื ืชื•ืฆืื•ืช ืžื–ืขื–ืขื•ืช.

ื‘ืฉืœ ื”ืžื™ืงื•ื ืฉืœ ืื™ื ื“ื•ื ื–ื™ื” ืขืœ ื—ืœืง ืžืฉืžืขื•ืชื™ ืฉืœ "ื˜ื‘ืขืช ื”ืืฉ ืฉืœ ื”ืื•ืงื™ื™ื ื•ืก โ€‹โ€‹ื”ืฉืงื˜", ืฉืชื™ ืœื•ื—ื•ืช ืงืจื•ื ื’ื“ื•ืœื™ื (ื”ืื•ืงื™ื™ื ื•ืก โ€‹โ€‹ื”ื”ื•ื“ื™ ื•ื”ืžืขืจื‘ ื”ืื•ืงื™ื™ื ื•ืก โ€‹โ€‹ื”ืฉืงื˜) ื ืืœืฆื™ื ืชื—ืช ืฆืœื—ืช ืื™ืจื•ืืกื™ ืžืกื™ื‘ื™ืช, ืฉื ื”ื ื ืžืกื™ื ืขืœ 100km ืžืชื—ืช ืœืคื ื™ ื”ืฉื˜ื—. ื—ืœืง ืžืŸ ื”ืžื’ืžื” ืขื•ืœื” ื•ืžืชืคืจืฅ ื›ื“ื™ ืœื™ืฆื•ืจ ืืช ื”ื—ื•ื˜ ืฉืœ ืื™ื™ื ื’ืขืฉื™ื™ื ื‘ืจื—ื‘ื™ ืื™ื ื“ื•ื ื–ื™ื”.

ืื‘ืœ ืขื ื”ืคืขื™ืœื•ืช ื”ื˜ืงื˜ื•ื ื™ืช ืžื’ื™ืข ืจืขื™ื“ื•ืช ืื“ืžื” ื•ืฆื•ื ืืžื™ ื”ืจืกื ื™ืช, ื›ื’ื•ืŸ ืืœื” ืฉืœ ื™ื•ื ืื™ื’ืจื•ืฃ 2004, ืืช ื’ 'ืื•ื•ื” ื‘ื™ื•ืœื™ 2006 ืกื•ืžื˜ืจื” ื‘ืฉื ืช 2009, ื•ืจืง ืœืื—ืจื•ื ื” ืกื‘ื™ื‘ ื’ืŸ ื”ืขื“ืŸ ืฉืœ ื”ื’ื•ืœืฉ ืฉืœ ืื™ื™ Mentawai. ื”ื ื” downdown ืขืœ ื”ื™ืคื•ืช ื‘ื™ื•ืชืจ ืฉืœ ืื™ื ื“ื•ื ื–ื™ื”, ื•ืขืœ ื ื“ื™ืฃ ื‘ื™ื•ืชืจ, ืžืคืœืฆื•ืช ื•ื•ืœืงื ื™ื•ืช.

Gunung Bromo, Java

ื ื•ืฃ ื’ื•ื ื™ื ื’ ื‘ืจื•ืžื• ื”ื•ื ืื—ื“ ืžืžืจืื•ืชื™ื” ื”ืžืจื”ื™ื‘ื™ื ื‘ื™ื•ืชืจ ืฉืœ ืื™ื ื“ื•ื ื–ื™ื”. ืžื•ืงืฃ ื‘ื™ื ื”ืฉื•ืžื ืฉืœ ื—ื•ืœื•ืช, ื”ืฉื™ื ืฉืœื• ื”ื•ื ืงื“ื•ืฉ ื•ืžืคื—ื™ื“. ื–ื” ืœื ื™ื›ื•ืœ ืœื”ื™ื•ืช ื”ืจ ื’ืขืฉ ื”ื’ื‘ื•ื” ื‘ื™ื•ืชืจ ืฉืœ ื’ 'ืื•ื•ื”, ืื‘ืœ ื–ื” ื‘ืงืœื•ืช ื”ืžืคื•ืืจ ื‘ื™ื•ืชืจ ืฉืœื”. ืžื”ืคืกื’ื” ื ื™ืชืŸ ืœืจืื•ืช ืฉื ื™ ื”ืจื™ ื’ืขืฉ ืื—ืจื™ื (ืื—ื“ ื‘ืฉืœื‘ื™ื ืฉื•ื ื™ื ืฉืœ ืคืขื™ืœื•ืช), ื›ื•ืœื ืžืžื•ืงืžื™ื ื‘ืงืœื“ืจื” ื”ืขื ืงื™ืช ืฉืœ ืขื•ื“ ื”ืจ ื’ืขืฉ.

ืœืขื•ืžืช ื”ืคืกื’ื•ืช ื”ื’ื“ื•ืœื•ืช ื”ืื—ืจื•ืช ืฉืœ ื’ 'ืื•ื•ื”, Gunung Bromo ื”ื•ื ื’ืžื“, ืื‘ืœ ื”ื™ื•ืคื™ ืฉืœ ื”ืจ ื’ืขืฉ ื–ื” ื”ื•ื ื”ื”ื’ื“ืจื” ืฉืœื”, ืœื ื”ื’ื•ื“ืœ ืฉืœื”. ื”ืขื•ืœื” ืžืžืื•ืจืช ื˜ื ื’ืจ ื”ืขืชื™ืงื”, ื‘ืจื•ืžื• ื”ื•ื ืื—ื“ ืžืฉืœื•ืฉื” ื”ืจื™ ื’ืขืฉ ืฉื”ื’ื™ื—ื• ืžืžื›ืชืฉ ืขื ืง, ื”ืžืฉืชืจืข ืขืœ ืคื ื™ 10 ืง"ืž. ืžื•ืงืฃ ืคืกื’ื•ืชื™ื”ื ืฉืœ ื›ื•ืจืกื™ ื•ื‘ืื˜ื•ืง, ื”ื—ืจื•ื˜ ื”ืžื”ื‘ื™ืœ ืฉืœ ื‘ืจื•ืžื• ืขื•ืžื“ ื‘ื™ื ืฉืœ ื—ื•ืœ ืืคืจื ื™, ืืคืจืกืงืื™, ืžื•ืงืฃ ื‘ืฆื•ืงื™ื ื”ืžืชื ืฉืื™ื ืฉืœ ืงืฆื” ื”ืžื›ืชืฉ. ื‘ืงืจื‘ืช ืžืงื•ื, Gunung Semeru, ื”ืคืกื’ื” ื”ื’ื‘ื•ื”ื” ื‘ื™ื•ืชืจ ืฉืœ ื’ 'ืื•ื•ื” ืื—ื“ ื”ืจื™ ื’ืขืฉ ื”ืคืขื™ืœื™ื ื‘ื™ื•ืชืจ ืฉืœื•, ื–ื•ืจืง ืืช ืฆืœื” - ื•ืœืคืขืžื™ื ืืคืจ ืฉืœื” - ืขืœ ื›ืœ ื”ืกืฆื ื”.

Gunung Krakatau, ื’ 'ืื•ื•ื”

ืงื— ื˜ื™ื•ืœ ื‘ืกื™ืจื” ื›ื“ื™ ืœืจืื•ืช ืืช ื”ืฉืจื™ื“ื™ื, ื•ืืช ื”ืชื—ืœื•ืช ื—ื“ืฉื•ืช, ืฉืœ ืื—ื“ ื”ืจื™ ื”ื’ืขืฉ A-List ืฉืœ ื”ืขื•ืœื. ื›ืžื” ื”ืจื™ ื’ืขืฉ ื™ืฉ ื›ืžื• ืคื™ืฆื•ืฅ ืžืงื•ื ื‘ื”ื™ืกื˜ื•ืจื™ื” ื›ืžื• ืงืจืงืื˜ื•, ื”ืื™ ืฉืคื•ืฆืฅ ืืช ืขืฆืžื• ื‘ื ืคืจื“ ื‘ืฉื ืช 1883. ื™ื•ื ืคื•ื ื” ื”ืœื™ืœื” ืœื–ืจื•ืง ืฆื•ื ืืžื™ ื”ืจืกื ื™ืช ืขืœ ื—ื•ืคื™ ื’ 'ืื•ื•ื” ื• ืกื•ืžื˜ืจื”, ืงืจืงื˜ื• ื‘ืžื”ื™ืจื•ืช ื”ืคืš ื•ื•ืœืงื ื•ืœื•ื’ื™ื” ืฉืœ ืกืœื‘ืจื™ื˜ืื™ื ื‘ืจืฉื™ืžื”. ืžืขื˜ื™ื ื”ื™ื• ืžื ื—ืฉื™ื ืฉืงืจืงืื˜ื• ื”ื™ื” ืžืจื—ืจื— ืืช ืขืฆืžื• ื‘ืฉื™ืจ ื‘ืจื‘ื•ืจ ื›ื” ื”ืจืกื ื™. ืงืจืืงืื˜ื• ืื•ืœื™ ืคื•ืฆืฆื” ืืช ืขืฆืžื” ืœืจืกื™ืกื™ื, ืื‘ืœ ื”ื™ื ืžื•ื—ืœืคืช ื›ืขืช ืขืœ ื™ื“ื™ ืื ืง ืงืจืงืื˜ื•, ืฉื ืžืฆื ืขืœ ื”ืขืœื™ื•ืช ืžืื– ื”ื•ืคืขืชื” ื”ืจืืฉื•ื ื” ืœืคื ื™ ื›ืžืขื˜ 80 ืฉื ื”. ื™ืฉ ืœื• ืžื–ื’ ื—ืกืจ ืฉืงื˜ ื•ื—ืกืจ ืžื ื•ื—ื”, ืฉื•ืœืฃ ืžืงืœื—ื•ืช ืฉืœ ืกืœืขื™ื ื–ื•ื”ืจื™ื ื•ื’ื•ืจื ืขืฉืŸ ื•ืืคืจ.

Kawah Ijen, ื’ 'ืื•ื•ื”

ืœื‘ืœื•ืช ืืช ื”ืœื™ืœื” ื‘ืžื˜ืขื™ ืงืคื” ืฉืœื•ื•ื” ืœืคื ื™ ื˜ื™ืคื•ืก ืขืœ ื”ืจ ื”ื’ืขืฉ ื›ื“ื™ ืœืจืื•ืช ืืช ืื’ื ื”ื’ื•ืคืจื™ืช ื”ืžื“ื”ื™ื ืฉืœื” ื‘ื˜ื•ืจืงื™ื–. ืจืžืช ืื™ื’'ืŸ ื”ืื’ื“ื™ืช ื”ื™ื ืื–ื•ืจ ื•ื•ืœืงื ื™ ืขืฆื•ื ื”ื ืฉืœื˜ ืขืœ ื™ื“ื™ ืฉืœื•ืฉืช ื”ืงื•ื ื•ืกื™ื ืฉืœ ืื™ื’'ืŸ, ืžืจืืคื™ ื•ืจืื•ื ื’. ืื–ื•ืจ ืืœืคื™ื ื™ ื™ืคื”ืคื” ืžื™ื•ืขืจ, ืืœื” ื”ืจืžื•ืช ืžืื›ืœืกื™ื ื“ืœื™ืœ ืžื˜ืขื™ ืงืคื” ื•ื›ืžื” ื™ื™ืฉื•ื‘ื™ื ืžื‘ื•ื“ื“ื™ื - Gunung Ijen ื”ื•ื Javanese ืขื‘ื•ืจ "ื”ื”ืจ ื”ื‘ื•ื“ื“". ื›ื‘ื™ืฉื™ ื”ื’ื™ืฉื” ืœืจืžื” ื”ื ื™ืจื•ื“ื™ื, ื•ืื•ืœื™ ื‘ื’ืœืœ ืžืกืคืจ ื”ืžื‘ืงืจื™ื ื”ื–ื” ื”ื ื ืžื•ื›ื™ื. ื›ืžืขื˜ ื›ืœ ืžื™ ืฉื‘ื ืœื›ืืŸ ื”ื•ื ื›ืืŸ ืœื˜ื™ื•ืœ ืขื“ ืื’ื ืžืจื”ื™ื‘ ืฉืœ ืžื›ืชืฉ ืฉืœ Kawah Ijen. ืื‘ืœ ืขื ื ื•ืฃ ื’ื•ืจืฃ ื•ืืงืœื™ื ืžืžื•ื–ื’, ื”ืจืžื” ื™ื›ื•ืœื” ืœื”ืคื•ืš ืœื‘ืกื™ืก ืžืฆื•ื™ืŸ ืœื›ืžื” ื™ืžื™ื ื‘ืžืขืœื” ื”ืขื ื ื™ื ื”ืจื—ืง ืžื”ืงื”ืœ.

Gunung Agung, ื’ 'ืื•ื•ื”

ืงื—ื• ืืช ืื—ื“ ื”ืžืกืœื•ืœื™ื ื”ืจื‘ื™ื ื‘ืžืขืœื” ื•ื‘ืžื•ืจื“ ื”ื”ืจ ื”ื’ื‘ื•ื” ื‘ื™ื•ืชืจ ื‘ืืœื™ ื”ื”ืจ ื”ืงื“ื•ืฉ ื‘ื™ื•ืชืจ; Gunung Agung ื”ื•ื ืฉื™ื ืžืจืฉื™ื ืœืจืื•ืช ื‘ื™ื•ืชืจ ืฉืœ ื“ืจื•ื ื•ืžื–ืจื— ื‘ืืœื™, ืœืžืจื•ืช ืฉื–ื” ืžื•ืกืชืจ ืœืขืชื™ื ืงืจื•ื‘ื•ืช ืขืœ ื™ื“ื™ ืขื ืŸ ืขืจืคืœ. ื”ืคื ื™ื•ืช ืจื‘ื•ืช ืœืชืช ืืช ื”ื’ื•ื‘ื” ืฉืœื” ื›ืžื• 3142m, ืื‘ืœ ื™ืฉ ืื•ืžืจื™ื ืฉื–ื” ืื™ื‘ื“ ื”ืขืœื™ื•ืŸ ืฉืœื” ื”ื”ืชืคืจืฆื•ืช 1963 ื•ื“ืขื” ืžืฉืชื ื” ืœื’ื•ื‘ื” ื”ืืžื™ืชื™. ื”ืคืกื’ื” ื”ื™ื ืžื›ืชืฉ ืกื’ืœื’ืœ, ื› 700 ืž ', ืขื ื”ื ืงื•ื“ื” ื”ื’ื‘ื•ื”ื” ื‘ื™ื•ืชืจ ืขืœ ื”ืงืฆื” ื”ืžืขืจื‘ื™ ืžืขืœ Besakih.

Gunung Kerinci, ืกื•ืžื˜ืจื”

ืืžื™ืฅ ื–ื” ืขืœื™ื™ื” ืžืืชื’ืจืช ืœืชื•ืš ื”ืฉืžื™ื ืขืœ ืฉื™ื ืฉืœ ืกื•ืžื˜ืจื” ื”ื’ื‘ื•ื”ื” ื‘ื™ื•ืชืจ. ื”ืฉื•ืœื˜ ืขืœ ื”ืงืฆื” ื”ืฆืคื•ื ื™ ืฉืœ ื”ืคืืจืง ื”ื•ื 3805m Gunung Kerinci, ืื—ื“ ื”ืจื™ ื”ื’ืขืฉ ื”ืคืขื™ืœื™ื ื‘ื™ื•ืชืจ ืฉืœ ืกื•ืžื˜ืจื” (ื–ื” ื”ืื—ืจื•ืŸ ืคืจืฆื” ื‘ืฉื ืช 2009) ื•ืืช ื”ืคืกื’ื” ื”ื’ื‘ื•ื”ื” ื‘ื™ื•ืชืจ ืฉืœ ืื™ื ื“ื•ื ื–ื™ื” ื”ืื™ ืคืคื•ืื”. ื‘ื™ืžื™ื ื‘ื”ื™ืจื™ื ื”ืคืกื’ื” ืžืฆื™ืขื” ื ื•ืคื™ื ื ืคืœืื™ื ืฉืœ Danau Gunung Tujuh ื•ืืช ื”ืขืžืงื™ื ื”ื”ืจื™ื ืฉืžืกื‘ื™ื‘.

ืงืœื™ืžื•ื˜ื•, ื ื•ืกื” ื˜ื ื’ืจื”

ืชื•ื”ื” ืขืœ ื”ื ื•ืฃ ื”ืืชืจื™ ืขืœ ื’ื‘ื™ ื”ืจ ื”ื’ืขืฉ ื”ื–ื”, ืขื ืฉืœื•ืฉ ืื’ืžื™ื ืฉื•ื ื™ื ื‘ืฆื‘ืข ื”ืžื›ืชืฉ ื ื•ืฃ ื”ื™ืจื—. ืื™ืŸ ื”ืจื‘ื” ื“ืจื›ื™ื ื˜ื•ื‘ื•ืช ื™ื•ืชืจ ืœื”ืชืขื•ืจืจ ืžืืฉืจ ืœืœื’ื•ื ืงืคื” ื’'ื™ื ื’'ืจ ื›ืืฉืจ ื”ืฉืžืฉ ื ื•ื—ืชืช ืืช ืฉืคืชื• ื”ืžืขืจื‘ื™ืช ืฉืœ ืงืœื™ืžื•ื˜ื•, ืžืกื ื ืช ืืช ื”ืขืจืคืœ ืœืฉืžื™ื ื•ื—ื•ืฉืคืช ืฉืœื•ืฉื” ืื’ืžื™ื ืขืžื•ืงื™ื ื•ื’ืขืฉื™ื™ื - ื›ืœ ืื—ื“ ืžื”ื ื”ื•ื ื’ื•ื•ืŸ ื‘ื•ืœื˜. ื–ื• ื”ืกื™ื‘ื” ื”ืื’ืžื™ื ื‘ืฉืœื•ืฉื” ืฆื‘ืขื™ื ืฉืœ ืœืื•ืžื™ Kelimutu ืคืืจืงื›ื‘ืจ ืžื–ืžืŸ ื ื—ืฉื‘ ื ื•ืกื” ื˜ื ื’ืจื” ื—ื™ื™ื‘. ื‘ืžื”ืœืš ื”ืžื—ืงืจ ืฉืœื ื• ื”ื™ื” ื˜ื•ืจืงื™ื–, ื”ื—ื•ื ื”ื›ื”ื” ื”ืฉื ื™ ืขื ื›ืชืžื™ ื—ืœื•ื“ื”, ื•ื”ืฉืœื™ืฉื™ ื”ื™ื” ื–ื›ื•ื›ื™ืช ืฉื—ื•ืจื”. ื”ืฆื‘ืขื™ื ืฆืคื•ืคื™ื ืขื“ ื›ื“ื™ ื›ืš ืฉื”ืื’ืžื™ื ื ืจืื™ื ื‘ืขื•ื‘ื™ ื”ืฆื‘ืข.

ื’ื•ื ื•ื ื’ ืจื™ื ื’'ืื ื™, ืœื•ืžื‘ื•ืง

ื”ืฆื˜ืจืฃ ืœืฆืœื™ื™ื ื™ื ื‘ืคืกื’ื” ืฉืœ ืคืกื’ื” ืงื“ื•ืฉื” ื–ื•, ืืฉืจ ื™ืฉ ืื’ื ืขื ืง ื”ืžื›ืชืฉ overlooked ืขืœ ื™ื“ื™ ื—ืจื•ื˜ ืคืขื™ืœ ืฉืœ Gunung Baru. ื›ื“ื™ ื‘ืืœื™ื ื–ื™, ืฉืžื’ื™ืขื™ื ืคืขื ื‘ืฉื ื”, Rinjani ื”ื•ื ืื—ื“ ืžืฉืœื•ืฉืช ื”ื”ืจื™ื ื”ืงื“ื•ืฉื™ื, ื™ื—ื“ ืขื Agung ืฉืœ ื‘ืืœื™ ื• Bromo ืฉืœ ื’ 'ืื•ื•ื”. ื‘ืชื•ืš ืงืœื“ืจื” ื”ืขื ืงื™ืช, 600 ืž 'ืžืชื—ืช ืœืฉืคื”, ื”ื•ื ืื’ื ืžื“ื”ื™ื, 6 ืง"ืž ืจื—ื‘ ื›ื—ื•ืœ ืงื•ื‘ืœื˜, Danau Segara Anak (ื™ืœื“ ืฉืœ ื”ื™ื). ืืช Balinese ืœื–ืจื•ืง ืืช ื”ืชื›ืฉื™ื˜ื™ื ืœืชื•ืš ื”ืื’ื ื‘ื˜ืงืก ืฉื ืงืจื pekelan, ืœืคื ื™ ืฉื”ื ืžืžืฉื™ื›ื™ื ืœืขื‘ืจ ื”ืคืกื’ื” ื”ืžืงื•ื“ืฉืช.

Gunung Api, Maluku

ืœื˜ืคืก ื‘ืžืขืœื” ื”ืจ ื”ื’ืขืฉ ื”ื–ื” ื‘ืื™ื™ ื‘ืื ื“ื” ืœื—ื•ื•ืช ืืช ื”ื ื•ืฃ ื–ืจื™ื—ื” ืžื“ื”ื™ื. ื”ืจ ื”ื’ืขืฉ ื”ืงื˜ืŸ, ื”ืฉื˜ื ื™ ื”ื–ื”, ื”ื™ื” ืชืžื™ื“ ืื™ื•ื ืขืœ ื‘ื ื“ื ื™ื™ืจื”, ืขืœ ืœื•ื ืช'ื•ื•ืจ ื•ืขืœ ื›ืœ ืžื™ ืฉื ื™ืกื” ืœื—ื•ื•ืช ืืช ืžื“ืจื•ื ื•ืชื™ื• ื”ืคื•ืจื™ื•ื ื™ื. ื–ื• ื”ื”ืชืคืจืฆื•ืช ื”ืื—ืจื•ื ื” ื‘ืฉื ืช 1988 ื ื”ืจื’ื• ืฉืœื•ืฉื” ื‘ื ื™ ืื“ื, ื”ืจืกื• ืžืขืœ 300 ื‘ืชื™ื ื•ืžื™ืœืื• ืืช ื”ืฉืžื™ื ื‘ืืคืจ ื‘ืžืฉืš ื™ืžื™ื. ืžื‘ื—ื™ื ื” ื”ื™ืกื˜ื•ืจื™ืช, ื”ืชืคืจืฆื•ื™ื•ืช ืฉืœ Gunung Api ื”ื•ื›ื™ื—ื• ืœืขืชื™ื ืงืจื•ื‘ื•ืช ืฉืžื“ื•ื™ืง ื‘ืื•ืคืŸ ืžืคืชื™ืข ืฉืœ ืคื•ืœืฉื™ื ืžืชืงืจื‘.

Gunung Semeru, ื’ 'ืื•ื•ื”

ื—ืœืง ืขื ืงื™ืช Tengger Massif, ื”ื—ืจื•ื˜ ื”ืงืœืืกื™ ืฉืœ Gunung Semeru ื”ื•ื ื”ืคืกื’ื” ื”ื’ื‘ื•ื”ื” ื‘ื™ื•ืชืจ ื‘ื’ 'ืื•ื•ื”, ื‘ 3676m. ื™ื“ื•ืข ื’ื ื‘ืฉื Mahameru (ื”ื”ืจ ื”ื’ื“ื•ืœ), ื–ื” ื ืจืื” ืขืœ ื™ื“ื™ ื”ื™ื ื“ื™ื ื›ืžื• ื”ื”ืจ ื”ืงื“ื•ืฉ ื‘ื™ื•ืชืจ ืฉืœ ื›ืœ ื•ืืช ืื‘ื™ื• ืฉืœ Gunung Agung ืขืœ ื‘ืืœื™. Semeru ื”ื•ื ืื—ื“ ื”ืคืกื’ื•ืช ื”ืคืขื™ืœื•ืช ื‘ื™ื•ืชืจ ืฉืœ ื’ 'ืื•ื•ื” ื ืžืฆื ื‘ืžืฆื‘ ื›ืžืขื˜ ืงื‘ื•ืข ืฉืœ ื”ืชืคืจืฆื•ืช ืžืื– 1818. ื‘ืฉื ืช 1981, 250 ื‘ื ื™ ืื“ื ื ื”ืจื’ื• ื‘ืžื”ืœืš ืื—ืช ื”ื”ืชืคืจืฆื•ื™ื•ืช ื”ื’ืจื•ืขื•ืช ื‘ื™ื•ืชืจ ืฉืœื”, ื•ื–ื” ื”ืชืคื•ืฆืฅ ืœืื—ืจื•ื ื” ื›ืžื• ืžืืจืก 2009.

ืฉืชืฃ:

ื“ืคื™ื ื“ื•ืžื™ื

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