ืฉื˜ื•ืงื”ื•ืœื: ืชืงืฆื™ื‘, ืืžืฆืข ื˜ื•ื•ื— ืื• ืžื•ืชืจื•ืช?

ืฉื˜ื•ืงื”ื•ืœื: ืชืงืฆื™ื‘, ืืžืฆืข ื˜ื•ื•ื— ืื• ืžื•ืชืจื•ืช?

ืฉื˜ื•ืงื”ื•ืœื ื”ื•ื ืžืกื•ื’ื ืŸ, ืชืจื‘ื•ืชื™ ื•ื™ืคื”. ื‘ืจื’ืข ืฉืืชื” ื“ื’ื™ืžื” ืืช ืชืขื ื•ื’ื•ืช ืฉืœ ื”ืขื™ืจ, ืœืงืคื•ืฅ ืขืœ ืžืขื‘ื•ืจืช ืœืื™ื™ื ื‘ืืจื›ื™ืคืœื’ ื”ื˜ื•ื‘ ื‘ื™ื•ืชืจ ืฉืœ ืฉื•ื•ื“ื™ื” ื ื”ื“ืจ ื‘ื—ื•ืฅ. ื‘ืงืจ ื‘ืกื•ืฃ ื™ื•ื ื™, ื•ืืชื” ืชืงื‘ืœ ืœื—ื•ื•ืช ืืช ื”ื ืื” ืžืœืื” ืฉืœ ืืžืฆืข ื”ืงื™ืฅ, ื”ืฆื“ืขื” ืฉืœ ืฉื‘ื“ื™ื” ืœืฉืžืฉ.

ื‘ื™ืŸ ืื ืืชื ืžื—ืคืฉื™ื ืชืงืฆื™ื‘, ื‘ืืžืฆืข ื˜ื•ื•ื— ืื• ืžืคืœื˜ ืžืคื•ืืจ ื‘ืฉื•ื•ื“ื™ื”, ืžื’ื–ื™ืŸ ืœื•ื ืœื™ ืคืœืื ื˜ ืžืจืื” ืœืš ื›ื™ืฆื“:

ืžื” ืœืจืื•ืช

ืชึทืงืฆึดื™ื‘:

ืžืฉืžืจื•ืช ืจื•ื™ืืœ, ื‘ื ื™ื™ื ื™ื ื‘ืฆื‘ืข ืžืžืชืงื™ื ื•ืกืžื˜ืื•ืช ืžืจื•ืฆืคื•ืช ืžืคื•ืชืœื•ืช - ืกื˜ืœื”ื•ืœื ืกื˜ืœื”ื•ืœื ืกื˜ืŸ (ื”ืขื™ืจ ื”ืขืชื™ืงื”) ื”ื•ื ืžืงื•ื ืžื”ืžื ื•ืžื–ื•ื™ืฃ ื‘ืžืจืื•ืช ื”ื™ืกื˜ื•ืจื™ื™ื. ื—ืงื•ืจ ืงื”ืœ ืžื•ืฉื›ื™ ื›ื’ื•ืŸ ื”ืืจืžื•ืŸ ื”ืžืœื›ื•ืชื™.

ื˜ื•ื•ื— ื‘ื™ื ื•ื ื™:

ื—ืœืงื™ื ืฉื•ื•ื™ื ื—ืฆื•ืคื™ื ื•ืจืฆื™ื ื™ื™ื, ืกื˜ื•ืงื”ื•ืœื ืฉืœ Moderna ืœืืžื ื•ืช ื’ืœืจื™ื” ืœืืžื ื•ืช ืžืื–ืŸ ืืช ื”ืืžื ื•ืช ื”ืขืžืžื™ืช ืขื ื™ืฆื™ืจื•ืช ืคืจื•ื‘ื•ืงื˜ื™ื‘ื™ื•ืช. ืื ืืžื ื•ืช ื”ื‘ื—ื™ื ื” ื”ื’ื‘ื•ืœ ืžืงื‘ืœ ื™ื•ืชืจ ืžื“ื™, ื”ืจืืฉ ืœืžืกืขื“ื” ืฉื–ื›ืชื” ืœืฉื‘ื—ื™ื.

ืžื•ึผืชึธืจื•ึผืช:

ื™ืฉ ื”ืจื‘ื” ืงื™ืืงื™ื ื•ืกื™ื•ืจื™ื ื‘ืกื™ืจื” ื‘ืกื™ืจื” ื‘ืจื—ื‘ื™ ืฉื˜ื•ืงื”ื•ืœื ื•ื”ืืจื›ื™ืคืœื’, ืื‘ืœ ื”ื“ืจืš ื”ื›ื™ ืžืœื”ื™ื‘ ืœืงื—ืช ืžื™ื ื”ื™ื ื“ืจืš RIB (ืกื™ืจื” ืžืชื ืคื—ืช ื ื•ืงืฉื”), ืขื‘ื•ืจ ืฉื™ื•ื˜ ืžื”ื™ืจ, ืจื™ื’ื•ืฉ ื’ื‘ื•ื”.

ืื™ืคื” ืœืื›ื•ืœ

ืชึทืงืฆึดื™ื‘:

ื”ืžืงื•ืžื™ื™ื ืื•ื”ื‘ื™ื ืงืคื” Saturnus ืขื‘ื•ืจ ื‘ื’ื˜ื™ื, ืžืืคื™ื ื‘ื™ืช ืงืคื” au lait. ื‘ืขื•ื“ ื”ื˜ืขื ื” ืฉืœื” ื™ืฉ ื”ืฆื™ื’ ืฉื˜ื•ืงื”ื•ืœื ื›ื“ื™ "ืจืื•ื™" ืงืคื” ื”ื•ื ื‘ืžื—ืœื•ืงืช ื‘ืœื”ื˜, ืื™ืŸ ืกืคืง ื›ื™ ืฉืœื” kanelbullar (ืœื—ืžื ื™ื•ืช ืงื™ื ืžื•ืŸ) ื”ื ื”ื˜ื•ื‘ื™ื ื‘ื™ื•ืชืจ ื‘ืขื™ืจ.

ื˜ื•ื•ื— ื‘ื™ื ื•ื ื™:

ื”ื—ื–ืจื” ื•ืจื•ืงืกื™ ื”ืžืกื•ื’ื ื ืช ืžืฆื™ื™ืจืช ืงื”ืœ ืžืขื•ืจื‘, ืขื ืžื ื•ืช ื™ื ืชื™ื›ื•ื ื™ื•ืช ืžื•ื“ืจื ื™ื•ืช ื•ื˜ืืคืืก. ืžื•ืกื™ืคื™ื ืืช ื”ื˜ื ื’ื•, ื•ืืช ื”ืžืœืฆืจื™ืช ื”ืกืคืจื“ื™ืช ื”ืžื•ื–ืจื”, ื•ื›ืœ ืžื” ืฉื—ืกืจ ื”ื•ื ืคืจื™ื“ื” ืงืืœื• ืœื™ื“ ื”ื‘ืจ.

ืžื•ึผืชึธืจื•ึผืช:

Den Gyldene Freden ืคื•ืขืœ ืžืื– 1722 ื•ืžืฆื™ืข ืžื ื•ืช ื ืฉื’ื‘ื•ืช ื›ื’ื•ืŸ ืกืœืžื•ืŸ ืžืขื•ืฉืŸ ืขื ืื‘ื•ืงื“ื• ืงืจื, ืชืื ื™ื ื•ืฆื™ืžื•ืงื™ื ืฆื™ืžื•ืงื™ื. ืœื”ื–ืžื™ืŸ ืžืจืืฉ ื•ืœื”ืœื‘ื™ืฉ ื›ื“ื™ ืœื”ืจืฉื™ื.

ืื™ืคื” ืœืงื ื•ืช

ืชึทืงืฆึดื™ื‘:

ืจืืฉ ื”ืฉื•ืงื•ืœื“ ืฉืœ ืฆ'ื•ืงืœื“ืคื‘ืจื™ืงืŸ ืžืื•ืžืŸ ื‘ืคืืจื™ืก; ื ืกื” ืืช praline ื”ืœ ื•ืืชื ืชื˜ืขืžื• ืื™ืœืŸ ื”ื™ื•ื—ืกื™ืŸ ืฉืœื” (ืฉื•ืงื•ืœื“ื™ื ืž £ 1, ื˜ืขื™ืžื•ืช £ 30)

ื˜ื•ื•ื— ื‘ื™ื ื•ื ื™:

ืงืกื˜ื•ืจ ืงื•ื ืกื˜ื ื˜ื‘ืจืง ืื•ืกืฃ ืขื‘ื•ื“ื•ืช ืฉืœ ืืžื ื™ื ื•ืžืœืื›ื™ื - ืชืžืฆื ื›ืœ ื“ื‘ืจ, ื”ื—ืœ ืžื›ื•ื‘ืขื™ ืขื•ืจ ื›ื‘ืฉ ื•ืขื“ ืœืกืจื˜ื™ ืขื•ืจ ืžืขื•ื˜ืจื™ื ื‘ืžืกื•ืจืช ื”ืกืืžื™.

ืžื•ึผืชึธืจื•ึผืช:

ื—ื ื•ืช ื”ืชื›ืฉื™ื˜ื™ื ื”ืžืคื•ืจืกืžืช ื‘ืขื•ืœื ืžื•ืกื™ืคื” ืœืžื•ื“ืจื ื™ื•ืช ืจื”ื™ื˜ื™ื ืคื•ืœื—ื ื™ื™ื ืžื”ืžืื” ื” -20 ืฉืœ ืกืงื ื“ื™ื ื‘ื™ื” ื›ื’ื•ืŸ ืืœื•ื•ืืจ ืืœื˜ื• ื•ืืจื ื” ื’'ื™ื™ืงื•ื‘ืกืŸ.

ืื™ืคื” ืœื™ืฉื•ืŸ

ืชึทืงืฆึดื™ื‘:

Vandrarhem af Chapman, ื‘ืกืคื™ื ืช ืžืคืจืฉ ืžืฉื•ืคืฆืช, ื”ื•ื ืื•ืœื™ ื”ืื›ืกื ื™ื” ื”ืžืงื•ืจื™ืช ื‘ื™ื•ืชืจ ื‘ืขื•ืœื, ืขื ืฉื ื™ ืžื™ื˜ื•ืช, ืืจื‘ืขื” ื—ื“ืจื™ื ืžื™ื˜ื•ืช ื•ืžืขื•ื ื•ืช. ื™ืฉ ื ื•ืคื™ื ื ืคืœืื™ื, ื‘ืžื™ื•ื—ื“ ื›ืืฉืจ ื”ืฉืžืฉ ืฉื•ืงืขืช.

ื˜ื•ื•ื— ื‘ื™ื ื•ื ื™:

ืžืœื•ืŸ ืงืจื™ืกื˜ืœ ืคืœืื–ื”, ื”ืฉื•ื›ืŸ ื‘ื‘ื ื™ื™ืŸ ืžืฉื ืช 1895, ื›ื•ืœืœ ื“ืœืชื•ืช ืžืงื•ืจื™ื•ืช ืฉืœ ื–ื›ื•ื›ื™ืช ื•ื–ื›ื•ื›ื™ืช, ืจืฆืคื•ืช ืฉื™ืฉ ื•ื’ืจื ืžื“ืจื’ื•ืช ืœื•ืœื™ื™ื ื™. ื”ื—ื“ืจื™ื ืคืฉื•ื˜ื™ื ื•ืžื•ื“ืจื ื™ื™ื ื‘ืกื’ื ื•ืŸ.

ืžื•ึผืชึธืจื•ึผืช:

ื’ืจื ื“ ืžื”ืžืื” ื”ืชืฉืข-ืขืฉืจื” ื ืžืฆื ืขืœ ื”ื—ื•ืฃ ืžื•ืœ ื”ืืจืžื•ืŸ ื”ืžืœื›ื•ืชื™. ื”ืขื™ืฆื•ื‘ ื”ื™ื ื• ืืœื’ื ื˜ื™, ืขื ื•ื™ืœื•ื ื•ืช ืžืขื•ื˜ืจื™ื ื•ื›ื™ืกืื•ืช ืžื•ื–ื”ื‘ื™ื (ืž -345 ืœื™ืฉ"ื˜)

ืžืืžืจ ื–ื” ื”ื•ื ืœืฉื›ืคืœ ืž ืžื’ื–ื™ืŸ ืœื•ื ืœื™ ืคืœืื ื˜, ืขืœ ืžื›ื™ืจืช ื›ืขืช ื‘ืจื—ื‘ื™ ื‘ืจื™ื˜ื ื™ื” ื‘ืžื—ื™ืจ 3.70 ืœื™ืฉ"ื˜.

ืฉืชืฃ:

ื“ืคื™ื ื“ื•ืžื™ื

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