ืœืœื ืฉื: ื ื™ืชืŸ ืœืงื‘ืœ ืงืคื•ืฆ 'ื™ื ื• ืขื ื›ื•ืคืชืื•ืช ืืœื”? ืžื” ื”ืกื™ื ื™ื ืื•ื›ืœื™ื ืœืืจื•ื—ืช ื”ื‘ื•ืงืจ.

ืœืœื ืฉื: ื ื™ืชืŸ ืœืงื‘ืœ ืงืคื•ืฆ 'ื™ื ื• ืขื ื›ื•ืคืชืื•ืช ืืœื”? ืžื” ื”ืกื™ื ื™ื ืื•ื›ืœื™ื ืœืืจื•ื—ืช ื”ื‘ื•ืงืจ.

ื ืชืงื• ืืช ื”ื˜ื•ืกื˜ืจ ืฉืœื›ื, ื’ืžืจื• ืืช ื›ื•ืก ื”ืงืคื” ื•ื”ื•ืชื™ืจื• ืืช ื”ืชืฉื•ืงื•ืช ืฉืœ ื”ื‘ื™ื™ืงื•ืŸ ืžืื—ื•ืจ; ืืชื” ื‘ืกื™ืŸ ืขื›ืฉื™ื•, ืฉื ืืจื•ื—ืช ื”ื‘ื•ืงืจ ื”ื™ื ื›ืžื• ืฉื•ื ื“ื‘ืจ ืฉื˜ืขืžืช ืงื•ื“ื.

ื™ืฉื ื ืขืฉืจื•ืช ื•ืขืฉืจื•ืช ืฉืœ ืžืกืจืงื™ ืืจื•ื—ืช ื‘ื•ืงืจ ื‘ืกื™ืŸ, ื›ื™ ื”ื ืฉื•ื ื™ื ื–ื” ืžื–ื” ื‘ืžื™ื“ื” ืจื‘ื”, ืชืœื•ื™ ื‘ืื™ื–ื” ื—ืœืง ืฉืœ ื”ืžื“ื™ื ื” ืืชื” ื ื•ืกืข, ืื‘ืœ ื ืจืื” ืฉืœื›ื•ืœื ื™ืฉ ืฉืœื•ืฉื” ื“ื‘ืจื™ื ืžืฉื•ืชืคื™ื: ื”ื ืžื™ืœื•ื™ ืžื“ื”ื™ื (ืœื ืžืฆื•ืคื” ืกื•ื›ืจ ืคื”), ื˜ืขื™ื ืœื”ืคืœื™ื (ืœืขืชื™ื ืงืจื•ื‘ื•ืช ืžื‘ื•ืฉืœ ืžื•ืœ ื”ืขื™ื ื™ื™ื ืฉืœืš ื‘ืจื’ืข ืฉืืชื” ื‘ืกื“ืจ) ื•ื–ื•ืœ ื‘ืื•ืคืŸ ืžื‘ืจื™ืง (ืื ืืชื” ืžืฉืœื ื™ื•ืชืจ ืž 1 $ ืขื‘ื•ืจ ืืจื•ื—ืช ื”ื‘ื•ืงืจ ืฉืœืš ื‘ืกื™ืŸ, ืจื•ื‘ ื”ืกื™ื›ื•ื™ื™ื ืฉืืชื” ืœื”ื™ื•ืช ripped off).

ืื– ืœืคื ื™ ืฉืืชื ื’ื•ืœืฉื™ื ืืœ ื”ืœื•ื‘ื™ ืฉืœ ื”ืžืœื•ืŸ ืฉืœื›ื ื›ื“ื™ ืœืชืคื•ืก ืืช ืžื” ืฉื ืฉืืจ ืžืžื–ื ื•ืŸ ื”ื‘ื•ืงืจ ื”ืคื•ืฉืจ ื”ืžืื›ื–ื‘, ืจืื• ืืช ื”ื—ื‘ื•ืจื” ื”ืžืขื ื’ืช ืฉืœ ืืจื•ื—ื•ืช ื”ื‘ื•ืงืจ ื”ืกื™ื ื™ื•ืช ื”ื ืื•ืช:

ื›ื•ืคืชืื•ืช ืžืื•ื“ื•ืช (ๅŒ…ๅญ; ื‘ืืื• Zi) ืขื ื“ื™ื™ืกื” (็ฒฅ; ื– ')

ืืชื” ืžืงื‘ืœ ืืช ื›ืœ ืืœื” ืขืœ ืคื ื™ ืกื™ืŸ, ืื‘ืœ ื”ื ื ืžืฆืื™ื ื”ื›ื™ ื˜ื•ื‘ ืฉืœื”ื ื‘ืขื™ืจ Hangzhou, ืฉื ื”ื ื™ื“ื•ืขื™ื ื›ืžื• xaoo ื‘ืืื• ืืจื•ืš (ๅฐ้พ™ ๅŒ…). ืžืžื•ืœืื™ื ื‘ื‘ืฉืจ ื—ื–ื™ืจ ืžืชื•ื‘ืœ ื•ืื– ืžื”ื•ื“ืงื™ื ื‘ืขืจื™ืžื•ืช ืฉืœ ืกืœื™ื ื‘ืžื‘ื•ืง (ืืฉืจ ืœืขืชื™ื ืงืจื•ื‘ื•ืช ืืชื” ืจื•ืื” ืžื•ืขืจืžื™ื ืขืœ ื™ื“ื™ ื”ื›ื ื™ืกื” ืœืžืกืขื“ื”), ืืœื” ื”ื ืื›ืœื• ื‘ืฆื•ืจื” ื”ื˜ื•ื‘ื” ื‘ื™ื•ืชืจ ืขื ืงืขืจื” ืฉืœ ื“ื™ื™ืกื” ืžืชื•ื‘ืœ, ื‘ื“ืจืš ื›ืœืœ ื“ื™ื™ืกื” ืงื•ืกืงื•ืก (xiao mi zhou, ๅฐ ็ฑณ็ฒฅ) ืื• ืื•ืจื– ื“ื™ื™ืกื” (da mi zhou; ๅคง็ฑณ ๅทž). ื•ื”ื˜ื‘ื™ืœื” ื—ืฉื•ื‘ื” ืžืื•ื“. ื›ืžื” ืกื™ื ื™ืช ื ืฉื‘ืข ืขืœ ื™ื“ื™ ืจื•ื˜ื‘ ืกื•ื™ื”. ืื—ืจื™ื ืœืขื•ืœื ืื™ื ื ืžื˜ื‘ืœื™ื ืืช ื›ื•ืคืชืื•ืชื™ื”ื ื‘ืฉื•ื ื“ื‘ืจ ืคืจื˜ ืœื—ื•ืžืฅ ื”ื˜ื•ื‘ ื‘ื™ื•ืชืจ.

ืžืงืœื•ืช ื‘ืฆืง ืžื˜ื•ื’ืŸ (ๆฒนๆก, ืืชื” tiao) ืขื ื—ืœื‘ ืกื•ื™ื” (่ฑ†ๆต†; dou jiang)

ืืฃ ืื—ื“ ืœื ืžืขืžื™ื“ ืคื ื™ื ืฉืžืงืœื˜ื™ ื‘ืฆืง ืžื˜ื•ื’ื ื™ื ื‘ืจื™ืื™ื, ืื‘ืœ ืžื™ืœื™ื•ื ื™ ืื ืฉื™ื ืกื™ื ื™ื ื ืฉื‘ืขื™ื ืขืœ ื™ื“ื ื‘ืฉืขื•ืช ื”ื‘ื•ืงืจ ื”ืžื•ืงื“ืžื•ืช. ื”ื ืื™ื ื ืืœื ืจืฆื•ืขื•ืช ืฉืœ ื‘ืฆืง ื˜ื‘ื•ืœื™ื ื‘ืžื™ื›ืœ ืขื ืง ืฉืœ ืฉืžืŸ ืจื•ืชื— ื•ืžื˜ื•ื’ื ื™ื ืขื“ ืคืจื™ืš, ืื‘ืœ ื”ื ื›ืœ ื›ืš ื˜ืขื™ื ืืชื” ืœืคืขืžื™ื ืœืจืื•ืช ื”ืžืงื•ืžื™ื™ื ืžืงื‘ืœื™ื ื—ืฆื™ ืชืจื™ืกืจ ื‘ื›ืœ ืคืขื. ืฉื•ื‘, ืชืžืฆื ืืช ื›ืœ ืืœื” ื‘ืจื—ื‘ื™ ืกื™ืŸ. ืœืžืขืฉื”, ืชื•ื›ืœื• ืœืžืฆื•ื ืื•ืชื ืœื™ื“ ืฉื•ืœื—ื ื•ืช ืืจื•ื—ืช ื”ื‘ื•ืงืจ ืžืžืฉ ืขืœ ืคื ื™ ื“ืจื•ื ืžื–ืจื— ืืกื™ื” ืžื“ื™. ื”ื›ื™ ื˜ื•ื‘ ืฉื˜ืฃ ืขื ื›ื•ืก ื”ื”ืชื—ืžืžื•ืช ืฉืœ ื—ืœื‘ ืกื•ื™ื” ื—ื.

ืžืจืง ื•ื•ื ื˜ื•ืŸ (ๆททๆฒŒ; dun hun) ืขื ืœื—ืžื ื™ื•ืช ื–ืจืขื™ ืฉื•ืžืฉื•ื (็ƒง้ฅผ; ืฉืื• ื‘ื™ื ื’)

ืจื•ื‘ ืชื•ืฉื‘ื™ ื”ืžืขืจื‘ ืžื›ื™ืจื™ื ืžืจืง ื•ื•ื ื˜ื•ืŸ, ืื‘ืœ ืžืขื˜ื™ื ืžื‘ื™ื ื™ื ืฉื”ื•ื ื ื‘ืœืข ื‘ืืจื•ื—ืช ื”ื‘ื•ืงืจ. ืžืจืง ืจื™ื—ื ื™, ืžื™ืžื™, ื•ื•ื ื˜ื•ืŸ ืžืœื ื›ื•ืคืชืื•ืช ืžื‘ื•ืฉืœื•ืช ื‘ื’ื•ื“ืœ ื‘ื™ืก ื•ืขืฉืจื•ืช ืฉืจื™ืžืคืก ื–ืขื™ืจื™ื ืฉืืคืฉืจ ืœื“ืžื™ื™ืŸ. ื”ื›ื™ ื˜ื•ื‘ ืœืื›ื•ืœ ืขื ืžืฉื”ื• ื™ื‘ืฉ ื•ืžื™ืœื•ื™, ื›ืžื• ืœื—ืžื ื™ื™ื” ืฉืœ ื–ืจืขื™ ืฉื•ืžืฉื•ื ืื• ื‘ื™ืฆื” ืžื‘ื•ืฉืœืช ืื•, ืื ืืชื” ืžืฉื•ื’ืข, ืฉื ื™ื”ื.

ืคื ืงื™ื™ืง (็…Ž้ฅผ; ื’'ื™ืื ื’ ื‘ื™ื ื’)

ืœืขืชื™ื ืงืจื•ื‘ื•ืช ื ืžื›ืจ ืžื—ื•ืฅ ื”ืื—ื•ืจื™ ืฉืœ ืจื™ืงืฉื•ืช ืžื—ื–ื•ืจ ืื• ืžืชื•ืš ื—ื•ืจ- in-the-the ื—ื˜ื™ืฃ ื“ื•ื›ืŸ, ื–ื” ืžื•ืขื“ืฃ ืขื‘ื•ืจ ืืœื” ืฉื™ืฉ ืœื”ื ืจืง ื–ืžืŸ ืœืืจื•ื—ืช ื‘ื•ืงืจ ืขืœ ื”ืจื™ืฆื”. ื’'ื™ืืŸ ื‘ื™ื ื’ ื”ื ืคื ืงื™ื™ืง ืžืชื•ื‘ืœ, ืžืชื•ื‘ืœ, ื›ื™ ื”ื ืžืคื•ื–ืจื™ื ืขืฉื‘ื™ ืชื™ื‘ื•ืœ ื‘ืฆืœ ืงืฆื•ืฅ ื“ืง ืงืฆื•ืฅ ืœืคื ื™ ืžืงื•ืคืœ ืกื‘ื™ื‘ ืคืจื•ืกืช ืคืจื™ืกื” ืžื˜ื•ื’ืŸ ืขืžื•ืง. ืžื•ืžื—ื™ื•ืช ื˜ื™ืื ื’ 'ื™ืŸ, ืื‘ืœ ืžืฆืื• ื‘ื›ืœ ืจื—ื‘ื™ ืกื™ืŸ.

ืงืžื— ืฉืขื•ืจื” ืงืœื•ื™ (tsampa) ืขื ืชื” ื—ืžืื” ื™ืืง (bo cha)

ื›ืžืขื˜ ื›ืœ ื“ื‘ืจ ืขืœ ืกื™ืŸ ื”ื˜ื™ื‘ื˜ื™ืช ืฉื•ื ื” ืžืฉืืจ ื”ืžื“ื™ื ื”; ื”ื ื•ืฃ, ื”ืขื, ื”ืชืจื‘ื•ืช, ื”ืžื›ืก. ืื™ืŸ ืคืœื ืฉื”ืื•ื›ืœ ื‘ืžืขืจื‘ ื”ืจื—ื•ืง ืฉืœ ืกื™ืŸ ื”ื•ื ื’ื ืขื•ืœื ื ืคืจื“. ืœื”ื™ืฉืืจ ื”ืœื™ืœื” ื‘ืžื ื–ืจ ืจื•ื‘ ื”ืกื™ื›ื•ื™ื™ื ืฉืืชื” ืชื”ื™ื” ื‘ืกื•ืคื• ืฉืœ ื“ื‘ืจ ืขื ื˜ืกืžืคื” ืœืืจื•ื—ืช ื‘ื•ืงืจ. ื–ื” ื ืจืื” ื›ืžื• ืงืขืจื” ืฉืœ ื ืกื•ืจืช ื‘ื”ืชื—ืœื”, ืื‘ืœ ืžืขื•ืจื‘ื‘ ื‘ื–ื”ื™ืจื•ืช ื™ื—ื“ ืขื ื—ืžืื” ื™ืืง ืชื” ื—ืžืื” ื–ื” ื”ื•ืคืš ืœื”ื™ื•ืช ืžืื•ื“ ืžื–ื™ืŸ, ืžื™ืœื•ื™ ืžืื•ื“ ืœื”ื“ื‘ื™ืง ืืฉืจ ืœืื—ืจ ื›ืžื” ืฉื‘ื•ืขื•ืช ืขืœ ื”ื›ื‘ื™ืฉ ื”ื—ื•ืฆื” ื‘ื“ืจืš ื–ื• ื”ื•ืคืš ืžืคืชื™ืข ืžืžื›ืจ. ืื ืืชื” ืฆืจื™ืš ืงืฆืช ืขื–ืจื” ืขื ืื™ืš ืœืขืจื‘ื‘ ื˜ืกืžืคื” ืฉืœืš, ืœืงืจื•ื ืขื ืฉืœื™ ื›ื™ืฆื“ ืœื‘ืฆืข.

Tsampa ื”ื•ื ืื›ืœ ื‘ืฆื•ืจื” ื”ื˜ื•ื‘ื” ื‘ื™ื•ืชืจ ืขื ืชื” ื—ืžืื” ื™ืืง, ืืฉืจ ื‘ืจ ืžื–ืœ ื›ื™ ื–ื” ืœืขืชื™ื ืงืจื•ื‘ื•ืช ื›ืœ ืžื” ืฉื™ืฉ ืœืฉืชื•ืช ื‘ื˜ื™ื‘ื˜.

ื—ืžื•ืจ ื‘ืฉืจ ื›ื™ืก ืžืืคื” (้ฉด่‚‰ ็ซ็ƒง; lu rou huo ืฉืื•) ืขื ืžืจืง ื‘ื™ืฆื™ื (้ธก่›‹ ๆฑค; ื’ 'ื™ ื“ืืŸ ื˜ืื ื’)

ืคื•ืคื•ืœืจื™ ื‘ื”ื‘ื™ื™, ื”ืžื—ื•ื– ื”ื›ืคืจื™ ื‘ืจื•ื‘ื• ื”ืžื›ืกื” ืœื—ืœื•ื˜ื™ืŸ ืืช ื‘ื™ื™ื’'ื™ื ื’, ืืœื” ืงืฆืช ื›ืžื• ืœื—ืžื ื™ื•ืช ื ืงื ื™ืงื™ื•ืช, ืจืง ื‘ืฉืจ ื”ื•ื ืงืฆื•ืฅ ื“ืง ื‘ืฉืจ ื—ืžื•ืจ ื•ื”ื•ื ืžืขื•ืจื‘ื‘ ืขื ืฆ 'ื™ืœื™ ื›ื•ืกื‘ืจื” ืœืคื ื™ ืžืžื•ืœืื™ื ืœืชื•ืš ืœื—ืžื ื™ื•ืช ื˜ืจื™ื•ืช ืืคื•ื™ ื˜ืจื™. ื‘ื“ืจืš ื›ืœืœ ืื›ืœ ืขื ืžืจืง ื›ืœืฉื”ื•, โ€‹โ€‹ืžืจืง ื”ื‘ื™ืฆื™ื ื”ื ืคื•ืฅ ื‘ื™ื•ืชืจ.

ื“ื ื™ืืœ McCrohan ื”ื•ื ื”ืžื—ื‘ืจ ืฉืœ ื”ืžื“ืจื™ืš ืฉืœ Lonely Planet ืฉืœ ืกื™ืŸ ื•ืžื“ืจื™ืš ื˜ื™ื‘ื˜ ืฉืœ Lonely Planet.

ืฉืชืฃ:

ื“ืคื™ื ื“ื•ืžื™ื

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