ื›ืชืžื™ื ื”ื™ืกื˜ื•ืจื™ื™ื ื—ืžื™ื ื‘ืจื—ื‘ื™ ื‘ื•ืกื˜ื•ืŸ

ื›ืชืžื™ื ื”ื™ืกื˜ื•ืจื™ื™ื ื—ืžื™ื ื‘ืจื—ื‘ื™ ื‘ื•ืกื˜ื•ืŸ

ืžืจื’ืข ืฉืขืœื• ื”ืฆืœื™ื™ื ื™ื ืœื—ื•ืฃ ื‘ืคืœื™ืžื•ืช 'ืจื•ืง, ืื–ื•ืจ ื–ื” ื”ื™ื” ืขืœ ื”ืžืคื” - ื”ืŸ ืžื‘ื—ื™ื ื” ื’ื™ืื•ื’ืจืคื™ืช ื•ื”ืŸ ืžื‘ื—ื™ื ื” ื”ื™ืกื˜ื•ืจื™ืช. ื›ื™ื•ื, ื”ืขื™ื™ืจื•ืช ื”ืžืงื™ืคื•ืช ืืช ื‘ื•ืกื˜ื•ืŸ ื›ื•ืœืœื•ืช ื™ืขื“ื™ื ื”ืžื™ื™ืฆื’ื™ื ื—ืœืง ืžื”ื—ืœืงื™ื ื”ื—ืจื™ืคื™ื ื‘ื™ื•ืชืจ ื‘ื”ื™ืกื˜ื•ืจื™ื” ืฉืœ ื”ืื•ืžื”.

ื”ืื•ืžื” ื”ื—ื“ืฉื” ื”ื™ืชื” ืื—ืช ืฉืœ ื”ื™ื, ืฆื‘ืจื” ืขื•ืฉืจ ืจื‘ ืžื‘ื ื™ื™ืช ืกืคื™ื ื•ืช, ืฆื™ื“ ืœื•ื•ื™ื™ืชื ื™ื, ื“ื™ื’ ื•ืžืกื—ืจ ื™ืžื™. ืขื ืคื™ื ืืœื• ื”ืชื‘ืกืกื• ืขืœ ืขืจื™ื ื›ืžื• ืกืืœื ื•ื’ืœื•ืกืกื˜ืจ, ืืฉืจ ื–ื•ื›ืจื•ืช ืืช ื™ืžื™ ื”ื”ื•ืœื“ืช ืฉืœื”ืŸ ืขื ืคืืจืงื™ื ื”ื™ืกื˜ื•ืจื™ื™ื ืœืื•ืžื™ื™ื.

ืœื ืฉื”ืื–ื•ืจ ืกื‘ื™ื‘ ื‘ื•ืกื˜ื•ืŸ ื—ื™ ื‘ืขื‘ืจ. ื”ื™ื•ื ืœื•ื•ื™ื™ื ื™ื ืืœื” ืฉืœ ื”ืจื›ื–ืช ื™ืฉ ืกืฆื ื•ืช ืืžื ื•ืช ืชื•ืกืก, ื›ื•ืœืœ ืžื•ื–ื™ืื•ืŸ ืคื™ืกื•ื“ื™ ื”ืžืคื•ืจืกื ืืกืงืก ื‘ืกืืœื ื•ืืช ื”ืžื•ืฉื‘ื” ืืžืŸ ืจื•ืงื™ ื”ืฆื• ื‘ Gloucester. ืžื™ื™ืœ ืฉืœ ื”ื—ื•ืฃ ื•ื˜ื”ื•ืจ ืœืฆื™ื™ืจ beachcombers ื• sunbathers (ืฉืœื ืœื“ื‘ืจ ืขืœ plovers ืฆื ืจืช). ืžื˜ื™ื™ืœื™ื ื•ืžื˜ื™ื™ืœื™ื, ืงื™ืืงื™ื ื•ืงื™ืืงื™ื, ืฆืคืจื™ื ื•ืฆื•ืคื™ ืœื•ื•ื™ื™ืชื ื™ื ื™ื”ื™ื• ื”ื–ื“ืžื ื•ื™ื•ืช ืจื‘ื•ืช ืœืขืกื•ืง ื‘ืื•ืจื— ื”ื—ื™ื™ื ื”ืคืขื™ืœ.

ืื– ืœืขืœื•ืช ืขืœ ื”ืื•ื˜ื•ื‘ื•ืก, ืœืชืคื•ืก ืจื›ื‘ืช, ืœืฉื›ื•ืจ ืžื›ื•ื ื™ืช ืื• ืื•ื›ืฃ ืืช ื”ืื•ืคื ื™ื™ื ืฉืœืš. ืื‘ืœ ื‘ื›ืœ ื”ืืžืฆืขื™ื, ืฆื ืžื”ืขื™ืจ.

ื™ื•ื ื™ืืคืฉืจ ืœื›ื ืœื—ืงื•ืจ ืืช ืกืืœื, ื”ืžืžื•ืงื ื‘ืžืจื—ืง ืฉืœ 20 ืง"ืž ืžืฆืคื•ืŸ ืžื–ืจื— ืœื‘ื•ืกื˜ื•ืŸ, ื‘ืงืฆื‘ ื ื™ื ื•ื—. ืกืืœื ืฉืจืฃ ืืช ืขืฆืžื• ืžืงื•ื ื™ื“ื•ืข ืœืฉืžืฆื” ื‘ื”ื™ืกื˜ื•ืจื™ื” ืขื ื”ื”ื™ืกื˜ืจื™ื” ืฉืœ 1692 ืฉื”ื›ื ื™ืกื” ืื ืฉื™ื ื—ืคื™ื ืžืคืฉืข ืœืžื•ื•ืช.

ื•ืื›ืŸ, ืกืืœื ื™ื•ืฆื ืœื“ืจื›ื• ื›ื“ื™ ืœื—ื’ื•ื’ ืืช ื”ื”ื™ืกื˜ื•ืจื™ื” ืฉืœื” ืงื•ื“ืจ ืœืžื“ื™ ื‘ ืœื™ืœ ื›ืœ ื”ืงื“ื•ืฉื™ื. ืขื ื–ืืช, ืœืื•ืจืš ื›ืœ ื”ืฉื ื”, ืžื–ื›ืจื•ืช ืžื›ื•ืฉืคืช ืื•ื”ื‘ ืœื—ืœื—ืœ ืžืŸ ืกื“ืงื™ื ืขืœ ืฉื‘ื™ืœ ื”ืชื™ื™ืจื•ืช ื•ืžื‘ื ื™ื” ื”ื™ืฉืŸ Salem.

ื™ืฉ ืืžื ื•ืช ืฉืœ ืžื•ื–ื™ืื•ื ื™ื ืžื›ืฉืคื•ืช ื‘ืจื—ื‘ื™ ื”ืขื™ืจ, ื›ื•ืœืœ ืžื•ื–ื™ืื•ืŸ ืืกืงืก ืคื™ื‘ื•ื“ื™, ืฉื‘ื• 552 ืžืกืžื›ื™ื ืžืงื•ืจื™ื™ื ืขืœ ืžืฉืคื˜ ืกืืœื ื”ืžื›ืฉืคื”. ื‘ื™ืช ื”ืžื›ืฉืคื•ืช ืขืฆืžื• ื”ื•ื ื’ื ื“ื•ื’ืžื” ืžืฆื•ื™ื ืช ืฉืœ ืื“ืจื™ื›ืœื•ืช ื”ืžืื” ื” -17 ื‘ืืžืจื™ืงื”. ื”ื‘ื™ืช ืฉืœ ืฉื‘ืขืช ื”ื’ืžื‘ืœื™ื ื”ื™ื” ืžืคื•ืจืกื ื‘ืกืคืจื• ืฉืœ ื ืชื ืืœ ื”ื•ืช'ื•ืจืŸ ืžืฉื ืช 1851, ื”ืžื‘ื™ื ืœื—ื™ื™ื ืืช ื”ืื•ื•ื™ืจื” ื”ืคื•ืจื™ื˜ื ื™ืช ื”ืงื•ื“ืจืช ืฉืœ ื ื™ื• ืื™ื ื’ืœื ื“.

ืชื•ืคืขื•ืช ื”ืžื›ืฉืคื” ืžื˜ืฉื˜ืฉื•ืช ืืช ืชื‘ื™ืขืชื• ื”ืืžื™ืชื™ืช ืฉืœ ืกืืœื ืœืชื”ื™ืœื”: ื™ืžื™ ื”ืชื”ื™ืœื” ืฉืœื” ื›ืžืจื›ื– ืœืกื—ืจ ื”ืกืคื™ื ื•ืช ืขื ืกื™ืŸ; ื”ืกื•ื—ืจ ื”ื—ืฉื•ื‘ ืฉืœื”, ืืœื™ืืก ื“ืจื‘ื™, ื”ืคืš ืœืžื™ืœื™ื•ื ืจ ื”ืจืืฉื•ืŸ ืฉืœ ืืžืจื™ืงื”. ื”ืืชืจ ื”ื”ื™ืกื˜ื•ืจื™ ื”ืœืื•ืžื™ ืกืืœื ื™ืžื™ืช ื›ื•ืœืœ ืืช ื”ื‘ื™ืช ื”ืžื•ืชืื ืื™ืฉื™ืช, ืืช ื”ืžื–ื—ื™ื ื•ืืช ืฉืืจ ื”ื‘ื ื™ื™ื ื™ื ืœืื•ืจืš ืจื—ื•ื‘ ื“ืจื‘ื™, ืฉื”ื ืฉืจื™ื“ื™ื ืฉืœ ืชืขืฉื™ื™ืช ื”ืžืฉื’ืฉื’ื•ืช. ื›ืœื™ ืกืืœื ืจื‘ื™ื ืขืงื‘ื• ืื—ืจ ื”ืžืกืœื•ืœ ืกื‘ื™ื‘ ื›ืฃ ื”ืชืงื•ื•ื” ื”ื˜ื•ื‘ื”, ื•ื”ืื’ื•ื“ื” ืœืžื–ืจื— ื”ื•ื“ื• ื”ืžื–ืจื—ื™ืช ื ื•ืกื“ื” ื›ืืŸ. ืืžื ืช ื”ื—ื‘ืจื” ื“ืจืฉื” ืืช ื”ืงืžืชื• ืฉืœ ืžื•ื–ื™ืื•ืŸ "ืœืฉื›ืŸ ืืช ื”ืกืงืจื ื•ืช ื”ื˜ื‘ืขื™ืช ื•ื”ืžืœืื›ื•ืชื™ืช" ืฉื”ื•ื‘ืื• ืขืœ ื™ื“ื™ ืกืคื™ื ื•ืช ื—ื‘ืจื•ืช.

ื”ืื•ืกืฃ ื”ื™ื” ื”ื‘ืกื™ืก ืœืžื•ื–ื™ืื•ืŸ ืืกืงืก ืคื™ื‘ื•ื“ื™, ืฉืžืฉืงืฃ ืืช ื”ื”ื™ืกื˜ื•ืจื™ื” ื”ื™ืžื™ืช ื”ืขืฉื™ืจื” ืฉืœ ืกืืœื. ื”ืžื•ื–ื™ืื•ืŸ ื”ื•ืงื ืขืœ ืืžื ื•ืช, ื—ืคืฆื™ ืืžื ื•ืช ื•ืกืงืจื ื•ืช ืฉื ืืกืคื• ืขืœ ื™ื“ื™ ืกืืœื ื‘ืžื”ืœืš ืžืกืขื•ืชื™ื”ื ื”ืžื•ืงื“ืžื™ื ืœืžื–ืจื— ื”ืจื—ื•ืง. ื›ืคื™ ืฉื”ืชืขืจื•ื›ื•ืช ืžืขื™ื“ื•ืช, ื”ื™ื• ืœื”ืŸ ื›ื™ืกื™ื ืขืžื•ืงื™ื ื•ื˜ืขื ืžืขื•ื“ืŸ. ื‘ื ื•ืกืฃ ืœืชืขืจื•ื›ื•ืช ื‘ื™ื ืœืื•ืžื™ื•ืช ืฉืœ ืกื™ื ื™ื ื•ืฉืœ ื”ืื•ืงื™ืื ื•ืก ื”ืฉืงื˜, ื”ืžื•ื–ื™ืื•ืŸ ืžืชื’ืื” ื‘ืื•ืกืฃ ืื™ื ื“ื™ืื ื™ ืืžืจื™ืงืื™ ืžืฉื•ื‘ื—.

ืกืืœื ื•ืจื‘ื•ืช ืžื”ืขื™ื™ืจื•ืช ื”ืžืขืจื‘ื™ื•ืช ืฉืžืื—ื•ืจื™ื”ืŸ ืžืื•ืคื™ื™ื ื•ืช ื‘ืžื’ื“ืœื™ ื›ื ืกื™ื•ืช ื™ืคื•ืช ื•ื‘ืขืฆื™ ืืœื•ืŸ ืขืชื™ืงื™ื ื”ืžืขื ื™ืงื™ื ืœื”ื ืืช ื”ืกื˜ื˜ื•ื˜ื™ื•ืช ืฉืžืขืจืขืจืช ืขืœ ื”ื“ืจืžื” ืฉื”ืชืจื—ืฉื” ืœืคื ื™ ืžืื•ืช ืฉื ื™ื. ืžืžื•ืงื ืฆืคื•ื ื™ืช ืžืขืจื‘ื™ืช ืœื‘ื•ืกื˜ื•ืŸ ื•ืžืชืื™ืžื” ืœื˜ื™ื•ืœ ื™ื•ื ื ื•ืกืฃ ื”ืŸ ื”ืขื™ื™ืจื•ืช ืฉืœ ืœืงืกื™ื ื’ื˜ื•ืŸ ื•ืงื•ื ืงื•ืจื“. ื‘ืžืจื—ืง ืงืฆืจ ื–ื” ืžื–ื”, ื‘ืขืจื™ื ื™ืฉ ื™ืจื•ืงื™ื ื”ื™ืกื˜ื•ืจื™ื™ื ืฉื‘ื”ื ื”ืชืจื—ืฉ ื”ืงืจื‘ื•ืช ื”ืจืืฉื•ื ื™ื ืฉืœ ื”ืžื”ืคื›ื”, ืื™ืจื•ืข ื—ืฉื•ื‘ ืฉื ืจืฉื ืžื—ื“ืฉ ื‘ื›ืœ ืฉื ื” ื‘ื™ื•ื ื”ืคื˜ืจื™ื•ื˜ื™ื (19 ื‘ืืคืจื™ืœ). ื”ื™ืกื˜ื•ืจื™ื” ื–ื• ื ื—ื’ื’ืช ื•ื ืฉืžืจืช, ืื‘ืœ ื–ื” ื‘ื ื™ื’ื•ื“ ืžื•ื—ืœื˜ ืœืงื”ื™ืœื” ืฉืœื•ื•ื”, ืืคื™ืœื• staid, ืœืงืกื™ื ื’ื˜ื•ืŸ ื”ื™ื•ื.

ื›ื“ื™ ืœืขืงื•ื‘ ืื—ืจ ื”ืื™ืจื•ืขื™ื ืฉื”ื•ื‘ื™ืœื• ืœืคืจื•ืฅ ื”ืžื”ืคื›ื” ื”ืืžืจื™ืงืื™ืช ื‘ืฉื ืช 1775, ื ื•ืกืขื™ื ื™ื›ื•ืœื™ื ืœืขืงื•ื‘ ืื—ืจ ืคื˜ืจื™ื•ื˜ ื•ืคื•ืœื—ืŸ ื”ื“ืžื•ืช ื”ื”ื™ืกื˜ื•ืจื™ืช ืฉืœ ืคื•ืœ ืจื•ื•ื™ืจ ืœืงืกื™ื ื’ื˜ื•ืŸ, ืฉื ืคืจืฅ ื”ืงืจื‘ ื”ืจืืฉื•ืŸ ืฉืœ ื”ืžื”ืคื›ื”. ื”ืžืฉืš ืขื•ื“ ืฉื™ืฉื” ืงื™ืœื•ืžื˜ืจื™ื ืœืื•ืจืš ื›ื‘ื™ืฉ ื”ืงืจื‘ ืœืงื•ื ืงื•ืจื“, ืฉื ื”ืžืชื™ื™ืฉื‘ื™ื ื”ื ื•ืขื–ื™ื ื”ืฆืœื™ื—ื• ืœื”ื›ื•ืช ืืช ื”ืžืขื™ืœื™ื ื”ืื“ื•ืžื™ื.

ื™ืฉ ืฉื•ืจื” ืฉืœ ืžื•ื–ื™ืื•ื ื™ื ืœืื•ืจืš ืœืงืกื™ื ื’ื˜ื•ืŸ Rd, ืžื“ืจื•ื-ืžื–ืจื— ืœืžืจื›ื– ืงื•ื ืงื•ืจื“, ื›ื•ืœืœ ื‘ืชื™ื ืฉืœ ื”ืกื•ืคืจื™ื ื”ืžืงื•ืžื™ื™ื ืจืืœืฃ ื•ื•ืœื“ื• ืืžืจืกื•ืŸ ื•ืœื•ืื™ื–ื” ืžืื™ ืืœืงื•ื˜. ืžื•ื–ื™ืื•ืŸ ืงื•ื ืงื•ืจื“ ืžื›ื™ืœ ืื•ืกืฃ ืขืฆื•ื ืฉืœ ื—ืคืฆื™ื ืฉืœ ื”ื ืจื™ ื“ื•ื“ ืชื•ืจื•. ื›ืœ ื”ื“ืžื•ื™ื•ืช ื”ืกืคืจื•ืชื™ื•ืช ื”ืืœื” ื ื—ื•ืช ื‘ื‘ื™ืช-ื”ืงื‘ืจื•ืช ื”ืžื ื•ืžื ื. ืกื™ื™ืžื• ืืช ื”ื™ื•ื ืขืœ ื™ื“ื™ ื”ืœื™ื›ื” ื‘ืฆืขื“ื™ื• ืฉืœ ืชื•ืจื• ืืœ ื•ื•ืœื“ืŸ ืคื•ื ื“, ืžืงื•ื ืฉืœื™ื• ืžื•ืงืฃ ื“ื•ื ืžื™ื ืฉืœ ื™ืขืจ.

ืฉืชืฃ:

ื“ืคื™ื ื“ื•ืžื™ื

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